Statistics, Nonparametric

Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Comparative biogerontology evaluates cellular, molecular, physiological, and genomic properties that distinguish short-lived from long-lived species. These studies typically use maximum reported lifespan (MRLS) as the index with which to compare traits, but there is a general awareness that MRLS is not ideal owing to statistical shortcomings that include bias resulting from small sample sizes. Nevertheless, MRLS has enough species-specific information to show strong associations with many other species-specific traits, such as body mass, stress resistance, and codon usage.

Author(s): 
Moorad, Jacob A.
Promislow, Daniel E. L.
Flesness, Nate
Miller, Richard A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Dentistry

OBJECTIVES: This double blind randomized clinical trial evaluated the longevity of the whitening effect (6-month follow-up) of two carbamide peroxide concentrations used in at-home vital bleaching. METHODS: Ninety-two volunteers with shade mean C1 or darker for the six maxillary anterior teeth were randomized into two balanced groups (n=46) according to bleaching agent concentration: 10% (CP10) or 16% (CP16) carbamide peroxide. Patients were instructed to use the whitening agent in a tray for 2h/day during 3 weeks.

Author(s): 
Meireles, S. S.
Heckmann, S. S.
Santos, I. S.
Della Bona, A.
Demarco, F. F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Dentistry

OBJECTIVES: This double-blind randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the whitening effect of two at-home tooth bleaching agents and the effect of dietary habits after 2 years. The patients' view about bleaching longevity was also investigated. METHODS: Ninety-two subjects with mean shade of C1 or darker for the six maxillary anterior teeth were randomized into two groups (n=46) according to the carbamide peroxide (CP) concentration: 10% (CP10) or 16% (CP16). The treatment was performed using the whitening agent in a tray for 2h/day during 3 weeks.

Author(s): 
Meireles, S. S.
Santos, I. S.
Bona, A. Della
Demarco, F. F.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of muscle mass is crucial to improving outcome and quality of life in cancer patients. Stimulating muscle protein synthesis is the metabolic basis for maintaining muscle mass, but in cancer patients normal dietary intake has minimal effects on muscle protein synthesis. Adding leucine to high protein supplements stimulates muscle protein synthesis in healthy older subjects.

Author(s): 
Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.
Safar, Ahmed
Schutzler, Scott
Memelink, Robert
Ferrando, Arny
Spencer, Horace
van Helvoort, Ardy
Wolfe, Robert R.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society

A key determinant of the relationship between diet and longevity is the balance of protein and carbohydrate in the diet. Eating excess protein relative to carbohydrate shortens lifespan in solitary insects. Here, we investigated the link between high-protein diet and longevity, both at the level of individual ants and colonies in black garden ants, Lasius niger. We explored how lifespan was affected by the dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and the duration of exposure to a high-protein diet.

Author(s): 
Dussutour, A.
Simpson, S. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neuro-Oncology

Regardless of their cell type of origin, all aggressive brain tumors, such as malignant gliomas and metastatic tumors produce brain edema, which is an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Caloric restriction (CR) has long been recognized as a natural therapy that improves health, promotes longevity, and significantly reduces both the incidence and growth of many tumor types. The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of CR on edema and survival in the mice implanted with U87 gliomas.

Author(s): 
Jiang, Yong-Sheng
Wang, Fu-Rong
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

We previously reported that psychological stress is linked to and possibly accelerates cellular aging, as reflected by lower PBMC telomerase and shortened telomeres. Psychological stress is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), with multiple behavioral and physiological mediators. Telomere shortness has been associated with CVD, but the relationship between low telomerase activity, a potential precursor to telomere shortening, and CVD risk factors has not been examined in humans.

Author(s): 
Epel, Elissa S.
Lin, Jue
Wilhelm, Frank H.
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Cawthon, Richard
Adler, Nancy E.
Dolbier, Christyn
Mendes, Wendy B.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

We previously reported that psychological stress is linked to and possibly accelerates cellular aging, as reflected by lower PBMC telomerase and shortened telomeres. Psychological stress is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), with multiple behavioral and physiological mediators. Telomere shortness has been associated with CVD, but the relationship between low telomerase activity, a potential precursor to telomere shortening, and CVD risk factors has not been examined in humans.

Author(s): 
Epel, Elissa S.
Lin, Jue
Wilhelm, Frank H.
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Cawthon, Richard
Adler, Nancy E.
Dolbier, Christyn
Mendes, Wendy B.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Medical Genetics

The hypothesis that a gene for susceptibility to psychosis (specifically in the X-Y homologous class) is located on the sex chromosomes has been proposed. Such a gene would account for the excess of sex chromosome anomalous males and females in populations of patients with psychosis, a tendency towards concordance by sex within families, and sex differences associated with psychosis and its underlying brain pathology. In earlier studies we observed small positive LOD scores in Xp11, and in a more recent and larger cohort of 178 sibling pairs, a peak multipoint nonparametric LOD score of 1.

Author(s): 
DeLisi, L. E.
Shaw, S.
Sherrington, R.
Nanthakumar, B.
Shields, G.
Smith, A. B.
Wellman, N.
Larach, V. W.
Loftus, J.
Razi, K.
Stewart, J.
Comazzi, M.
Vita, A.
de Hert, M.
Crow, T. J.
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

Multiple genetic approaches have identified microRNAs as key effectors in psychiatric disorders as they post-transcriptionally regulate expression of thousands of target genes. However, their role in specific psychiatric diseases remains poorly understood. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, which affect the expression of both microRNAs and coding genes, are critical for our understanding of molecular mechanisms in schizophrenia.

Author(s): 
Hass, Johanna
Walton, Esther
Wright, Carrie
Beyer, Andreas
Scholz, Markus
Turner, Jessica
Liu, Jingyu
Smolka, Michael N.
Roessner, Veit
Sponheim, Scott R.
Gollub, Randy L.
Calhoun, Vince D.
Ehrlich, Stefan

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