Stem Cells

Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Hematology

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New discoveries focused on mitochondrial metabolism and gene silencing and their regulation by the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases is stimulating new ideas on how to improve geriatric medicine. Information about sertuins in stem cell biology is scarce. We consider recent information on sirtuin 1, its role in aging and metabolism in several species and tissues, and attempt to anticipate how it might influence stem cell aging.

Author(s): 
Mantel, Charlie
Broxmeyer, Hal E.
Publication Title: 
Nature Communications

With ageing, there is a loss of adult stem cell function. However, there is no direct evidence that this has a causal role in ageing-related decline. We tested this using muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells (MDSPCs) in a murine progeria model. Here we show that MDSPCs from old and progeroid mice are defective in proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Intraperitoneal administration of MDSPCs, isolated from young wild-type mice, to progeroid mice confer significant lifespan and healthspan extension.

Author(s): 
Lavasani, Mitra
Robinson, Andria R.
Lu, Aiping
Song, Minjung
Feduska, Joseph M.
Ahani, Bahar
Tilstra, Jeremy S.
Feldman, Chelsea H.
Robbins, Paul D.
Niedernhofer, Laura J.
Huard, Johnny
Publication Title: 
PLoS genetics

In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), the promotion of longevity by the transcription factor DAF-16 requires reduced insulin/IGF receptor (IIR) signaling or the ablation of the germline, although the reason for the negative impact of germ cells is unknown. FOXO/DAF-16 activity inhibits germline proliferation in both daf-2 mutants and gld-1 tumors. In contrast to its function as a germline tumor suppressor, we now provide evidence that somatic DAF-16 in the presence of IIR signaling can also result in tumorigenic activity, which counteracts robust lifespan extension.

Author(s): 
Qi, Wenjing
Huang, Xu
Neumann-Haefelin, Elke
Schulze, Ekkehard
Baumeister, Ralf
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a recessive neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the selective loss of spinal motor neurons. No available therapy exists for SMA, which represents one of the leading genetic causes of death in childhood. SMA is caused by a mutation of the survival-of-motor-neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, leading to a quantitative defect in the survival-motor-neuron (SMN) protein expression. All patients retain one or more copies of the SMN2 gene, which modulates the disease severity by producing a small amount of stable SMN protein.

Author(s): 
Branchu, Julien
Biondi, Olivier
Chali, Farah
Collin, Thibault
Leroy, Felix
Mamchaoui, Kamel
Makoukji, Joelle
Pariset, Claude
Lopes, Philippe
Massaad, Charbel
Chanoine, Christophe
Charbonnier, FrÈdÈric
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Understanding mechanisms underlying longevity, and endeavor towards the specific goals of alleviating frailty in old age, require a comprehensive approach that considers the various theoretical and experimental approaches, as well as compiling the data on humans. This logistic has underlined the program of the conference, and is reflected in the present special issue. Considerable volume of data now point to distinct genes that are associated with exceptional longevity in humans, as reflected from the articles in this volume.

Author(s): 
Globerson, Amiela
Barzilai, Nir
Publication Title: 
MÈdecine Sciences: M/S

Aging is a complex process that is accompanied by the onset of a series of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Aging is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among the genes that regulate aging, the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway plays a central role, as this pathway regulates lifespan in multiple species, such as worms, flies, and mice. In humans, exceptional longevity - being a centenarian - is also associated with genetic variation in this insulin-FOXO pathway.

Author(s): 
Brunet, Anne
Publication Title: 
Journal of Endodontics

INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received much attention as a promising population of stem cells in regenerative endodontics. Securing a good blood supply during regeneration is a challenging task because of the constricted apical canal opening, which allows only a limited blood supply. The aim of this study was to investigate any potential synergistic effects of dental pulp stem cells and endothelial cells (ECs) on osteo-/odontogenic and angiogenic differentiation in vitro.

Author(s): 
Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal
Zhan, Xuan
Zhang, Chengfei
Hargreaves, Kenneth M.
Jin, Lijian
Tong, Edith H. Y.
Publication Title: 
MÈdecine Sciences: M/S

Aging is a complex process that is accompanied by the onset of a series of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Aging is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among the genes that regulate aging, the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway plays a central role, as this pathway regulates lifespan in multiple species, such as worms, flies, and mice. In humans, exceptional longevity - being a centenarian - is also associated with genetic variation in this insulin-FOXO pathway.

Author(s): 
Brunet, Anne
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Endocrinology

Adrenarche is a cell biological and endocrinological puzzle. The differentiation of the zona reticularis in childhood in humans requires special techniques for study because it is confined to humans and possibly a small number of other primates. Despite the rapid progress in the definition of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells in the mouse, the factors that cause the differentiation of adrenocortical cells into zonal cell types have not been identified. There are, however, many candidates in the Wnt, Hedgehog, and other families of signaling molecules.

Author(s): 
Hornsby, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

Current evidence suggests that similar to other tissues in the human body mammary epithelia cells are being maintained by the unique properties of stem cells, undifferentiated as well as lineage-restricted progenitors. Because of their longevity, proliferation and differentiation potentials these primitive breast epithelial cells are likely targets of transforming mutations that can cause them to act as cancer initiating cells.

Author(s): 
Raouf, Afshin
Sun, Yujia
Chatterjee, Sumanta
Basak, Pratima

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