The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT6 regulates genome stability, cancer, and lifespan. Mice overexpressing SIRT6 (MOSES) have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and are protected against the physiological damage of obesity. Here, we examined the role of SIRT6 in cholesterol regulation via the lipogenic transcription factors SREBP1 and SREBP2, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We show that SIRT6 represses SREBP1 and SREBP2 by at least three mechanisms. First, SIRT6 represses the transcription levels of SREBP1/SREBP2 and that of their target genes.
Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a traditional medicinal plant of Ayurveda. It grows widely in Asia and is prescribed in the treatment of liver diseases. Here we have investigated the beneficial role of 14-deoxyandrographolide (14-DAG), a bioactive diterpenoid from AP, against alcoholic steatosis in rats. 14-DAG was extracted from aerial parts (leaves and stems) of AP. Rats were fed with ethanol for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with 14-DAG during the last 4 weeks of ethanol treatment. In vitro studies were undertaken in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line culture.
Soy intake reduces cholesterol levels. However, both the identity of the soy component or components that contribute to this reduction and the cellular mechanism producing this reduction are unknown. Soy consists of protein, lipids, fiber, and phytochemicals including isoflavones. We propose that the isoflavone component of soy mediates this effect, at least in part, by affecting cellular sterol homeostasis.
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) was isolated as a xenosensor regulating xenobiotic responses. In this study, we show that PXR plays an endobiotic role by impacting lipid homeostasis. Expression of an activated PXR in the livers of transgenic mice resulted in an increased hepatic deposit of triglycerides. This PXR-mediated lipid accumulation was independent of the activation of the lipogenic transcriptional factor SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) and its primary lipogenic target enzymes, including fatty-acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC-1).
Since trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) enhances glucose metabolism, interest in the use of Cr(3+)as a therapy for type 2 diabetes has grown in the mainstream medical community. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that Cr(3+) may also benefit cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atypical depression. We have found that cholesterol, a lipid implicated in both CVD and neurodegenerative disorders, also influences cellular glucose uptake. A recent study in our laboratory shows that exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to chromium picolinate (CrPic, 10 nM) induces a loss of plasma membrane cholesterol.
The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea (GT) inhibits the expression of genes regulating hepatic lipogenesis and intestinal lipid transport in fructose-fed ovariectomized (OX) rats. OX rats were assigned to: 1) a control group (S) fed the AIN-93G diet with corn starch as the major carbohydrate source; 2) another control group (F) fed the same diet but containing fructose at 60% as the major carbohydrate source; 3) a group fed the F diet but containing 0.5% GT; and 4) a group fed the F diet containing 1% GT.
BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering LDL-C, emerging data suggests that phytosterols (PS) may reduce blood triglycerides (TG), however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. METHODS: We examined the TG-lowering mechanisms of dietary PS in Syrian golden hamsters randomly assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet supplemented with PS (2%) for 6 weeks (n = 12/group). An additional subset of animals (n = 12) was provided the HF diet supplemented with ezetimibe (EZ, 0.002%) as a positive control as it is a cholesterol-lowering agent with known TG-lowering properties.
The ability to regulate specific genes of energy metabolism in response to fasting and feeding is an important adaptation allowing survival of intermittent food supplies. However, little is known about transcription factors involved in such responses in higher organisms.
Obstructive sleep apnea, a syndrome leading to recurrent intermittent hypoxia (IH), has been associated previously with hypercholesterolemia, independent of underlying obesity. We examined the effects of experimentally induced IH on serum lipid levels and pathways of lipid metabolism in the absence and presence of obesity. Lean C57BL/6J mice and leptin-deficient obese C57BL/6J-Lep(ob) mice were exposed to IH for five days to determine changes in serum lipid profile, liver lipid content, and expression of key hepatic genes of lipid metabolism.
We have previously shown that exposure of C57BL/6J mice to intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to 1) hypertriglyceridemia due to upregulation of pathways of lipid biosynthesis, including sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)-1; and 2) hypercholesterolemia due to impaired cholesterol uptake. The goal of the present study was to examine whether hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is implicated in changes in lipid metabolism induced by IH.