Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences from Nano to Macro
Nanopreparations such as liposomes, micelles, polymeric and inorganic nanoparticles, and small molecule/nucleic acid/protein conjugates have demonstrated various advantages over "naked" therapeutic molecules. These nanopreparations can be further engineered with functional moieties to improve their performance in terms of circulation longevity, targetability, enhanced intracellular penetration, carrier-mediated enhanced visualization, and stimuli-sensitivity.
Two decades ago, experimental social psychologists became interested in the emotion of passionate love, "the desire for union with another." Recently, sex researchers have begun to focus on sexual desire, "the desire for sexual union with another," or the loss thereof. In this paper we review what experimental social psychologists have learned about the nature of passionate love in the last two decades and contrast their view of passion with that of sex researchers, especially with regard to the role that anxiety plays in the intensification/diminution of passion.
People often alter their own preferences when facing conflicting opinions expressed by others. This is known as the social conformity effect and tends to be stronger in response to opinions expressed by in-group relative to out-group members. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin promotes in-group favoritism, elicits parochial altruism, and stimulates in-group conformity under explicit social pressure.
Calcium entry blockers are now widely employed in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and perioperative hypertension. In patients with coronary heart disease nifedipine therapy should be continued perioperatively to avoid coronary artery spasm. Animal experiments have demonstrated that calcium entry blockers potentiate the neuromuscular blockade induced by nondepolarizing blocking agents. In patients, an atracurium-induced neuromuscular depression is prolonged by intravenous nifedipine.
Aromatherapy is an anecdotal method for modifying sleep and mood. However, whether olfactory exposure to essential oils affects night-time objective sleep remains untested. Previous studies also demonstrate superior olfactory abilities in women. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of an olfactory stimulus on subsequent sleep and assessed gender differences in such effects.
Despite aromatherapy's popularity, efficacy data are scant, and potential mechanisms are controversial. This randomized controlled trial examined the psychological, autonomic, endocrine, and immune consequences of one purported relaxant odor (lavender), one stimulant odor (lemon), and a no-odor control (water), before and after a stressor (cold pressor); 56 healthy men and women were exposed to each of the odors during three separate visits.
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Ashwagandha (root of Withania somnifera) has been used for many purposes, it is mainly considered a tonic in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. This review focuses on the effects of compounds isolated from Ashwagandha on dementia models and on the spinal cord injury model. Our study demonstrated that the active constituents, withanolide A, withanoside IV, and withanoside VI, restored presynapses and postsynapses, in addition to both axons and dendrites in cortical neurons after Abeta(25-35)-induced injury.