Stomach

Publication Title: 
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Gastrointestinal dysmotility in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is prevalent in 90% of patients, increasing morbidity and in some cases mortality. The resultant gastrointestinal complications are usually extensive, involving many regions of the gut from the oesophagus to the anus. Collagen replacement of vascular and enteric smooth muscle results in hypomotility, lumen dilatation, tensile rigidity and eventual loss of organ functions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of systemic sclerosis-related gastrointestinal dysmotility and available/potential therapeutic options.

Author(s): 
Sallam, H.
McNearney, T. A.
Chen, J. D. Z.
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, the gastro protective mechanism of chebulinic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit was investigated. Chebulinic acid was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Potential anti-ulcer activity of chebulinic acid was observed against CRU (62.9%), AS (55.3%), AL (80.67%) and PL (66.63%) induced ulcer models.

Author(s): 
Mishra, Vaibhav
Agrawal, Manali
Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji
Madhur, Gaurav
Rastogi, Preeti
Pandey, Haushila Prasad
Palit, Gautam
Narender, Tadigoppula
Publication Title: 
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
Author(s): 
Stacher, G.
Berner, P.
Naske, R.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine

The purpose of this study was to compare the Oxylator EM-100, a ventilator with a fixed flow and working pressure of 25 to 50 cm H(2)O, with a bag-valve device with respect to safety, efficiency, and efficacy when used by professionals. We conducted a prospective, controlled, caregiver-blind single center study. Induction was followed by ventilation with a bag-valve device oxylator in manual and automatic modes. Steps were repeated under hypnosis, after muscle relaxation with mask, and with an endotracheal tube. Forty patients, aged 48.8 +/- 13.5 years weighing 50 to 111 kg were studied.

Author(s): 
Noordergraaf, Gerrit J.
Van Dun, Peter J.
Schors, Marcel P.
De Jong, Wim
Noordergraaf, Abraham
Publication Title: 
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

BACKGROUND: No data are available on the effect of hypnosis on gastric emptying. AIM: To determine the effect of a hypnosis session on gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms. METHODS: We studied emptying by ultrasonography and epigastric sensations in 11 healthy subjects and in 15 patients affected by functional dyspepsia under three conditions according to a fixed schedule: (a) basal, (b) after cisapride and (c) during a 90 min hypnotic trance. Eight healthy subjects repeated an emptying study listening to relaxing music.

Author(s): 
Chiarioni, G.
Vantini, I.
De Iorio, F.
Benini, L.
Publication Title: 
Current Gastroenterology Reports

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is common in children, with as many as 80% of those being evaluated for chronic abdominal pain reporting symptoms of epigastric discomfort, nausea, or fullness. It is known that patients with persistent complaints have increased comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. The interaction with psychopathologic variables has been found to mediate the association between upper abdominal pain and gastric hypersensitivity. These observations suggest that abnormal central nervous system processing of gastric stimuli may be a relevant pathophysiologic mechanism in FD.

Author(s): 
Perez, Maria E.
Youssef, Nader N.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

OBJECTIVES: The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal) functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. DESIGN: Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing meal, or to relax and concentrate on having an appetizing or unappetizing meal, while the electrogastrogram (EGG) was recorded.

Author(s): 
Enck, Paul
Hefner, Jochen
Herbert, Beate M.
Mazurak, Nazar
Weimer, Katja
Muth, Eric R.
Zipfel, Stephan
Martens, Ute
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

Bacopa monniera Wettst. (BM, syn. Herpestis monniera L; Scrophulariaceae), is an Ayurvedic drug used as a rasayana. Its fresh juice was earlier reported to have significant antiulcerogenic activity. In continuation, methanolic extract of BM (BME) standardized to bacoside-A content (percentage-38.0 +/- 0.9), when given in the dose of 10-50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days, showed dose-dependent anti-ulcerogenic on various gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol, aspirin, 2 h cold restraint stress and 4 h pylorus ligation.

Author(s): 
Sairam, K.
Rao, C. V.
Babu, M. D.
Goel, R. K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Asparagus racemosus is an Ayurvedic rasayana, which finds mention in ancient Indian texts for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer protective effect of methanolic extract of fresh roots of A. racemosus (ARM), 25-100 mg/kg given orally, twice daily for 5 days, was studied on different gastroduodenal ulcer models. ARM 50 mg/kg, twice daily, orally (total saponins 0.9%) showed significant protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by cold restraint stress (CRS), pyloric ligation, aspirin plus pyloric ligation, and duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine.

Author(s): 
Sairam, K.
Priyambada, S.
Aryya, N. C.
Goel, R. K.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

The rhizomes of Nardostachysjatamansi, the plant commonly known as Jatamansi have been described in Ayurveda for their soothing and sedative action on the central nervous system. In the present study, the anti-stress effect of hydroethanolic extract (70%) of N. jatamansi (NJE) was evaluated in reference to its antioxidant property. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: naive, stressed, and T-200 and T-500 stressed with oral pre-treatment of NJE 200 and 500 mg/kg, respectively.

Author(s): 
Lyle, Nazmun
Bhattacharyya, Dipankar
Sur, Tapas K.
Munshi, Santanu
Paul, Suhrita
Chatterjee, Suparna
Gomes, Antony

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