Recent discoveries about the effects of drugs of abuse on the brain and the mechanisms of their addictions; new chemical compounds, including immunotherapies; and new actions of available medications are offering many opportunities for the discovery and development of novel medications to treat addictive disorders. Furthermore, advancements in the understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of drug addiction and the pharmacogenetics of the safety and/or efficacy of the medications are providing opportunities for more individualized pharmacotherapy approaches.
The major psychotic disorders schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are etiologically complex involving both heritable and nonheritable factors. The absence of consistently replicated major genetic effects, together with evidence for lasting changes in gene expression after environmental exposures, is consistent with the concept that the biologic underpinnings of these disorders are epigenetic in form rather than DNA sequence based.
Addictions to cocaine or heroin/prescription opioids [short-acting ?-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists] involve relapsing cycles, with experimentation/escalating use, withdrawal/abstinence, and relapse/re-escalation. ?-Opioid receptors (KOPr; encoded by OPRK1), and their endogenous agonists, the dynorphins (encoded by PDYN), have counter-modulatory effects on reward caused by cocaine or MOPr agonist exposure, and exhibit plasticity in addictive-like states. KOPr/dynorphin activation is implicated in depression/anxiety, often comorbid with addictions.
Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to differentiate between healthy and dysfunctional adolescent romantic relationships.
A chemically dependent man was treated using hypnotherapy and related psychotherapeutic techniques. I started by taking a psychosocial history and then introduced such interventions as pattern interruption and symbolic task assignments to establish initial sobriety. The majority of the sessions focused on age regressing the patient to events correlating to drug and alcohol abuse. During these events I introduced myself via hypnosis as "the voice from the future" to redefine the events and extract the useful learnings.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of opiate drug addicts on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) continue using heroin and additional street drugs simultaneously. They constitute the most difficult to treat population in MMT centers as they present extremely difficult and negative behaviors as well as medical problems. Medical hypnosis is a proven effective medical intervention to alleviate pain, lessen anxieties, as well as being partially effective in treating nicotine addiction.
The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to provide a profile of young people attending alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services in Aotearoa, New Zealand. METHOD: Data were gathered from a clinical file search of 184 randomly selected young people aged 13-19 years who had attended one of eight youth AOD treatment services in New Zealand during 2003 or 2004. These services represented eight of the 11 youth-specific AOD services available to youth in New Zealand.
In Spain, detoxification in general hospitals plays an important role in the medical care of patients. We aim to provide clinicians with information on the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric co-morbidity in drug abusers in detoxification. A sample of 115 substance-abuse inpatients (mean age 31.9 +/- 6.4 years) in a Detoxification Unit of a general university hospital was studied using the Spanish version of the PRISM. Most of the patients had multiple dependence diagnoses and co-morbid axis I or axis II psychiatric disorders.
For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses.