Stromal Cells

Publication Title: 
Immunological Reviews

Antibodies continuously secreted by plasma cells play a central role in humoral immune protection of the organism. These plasma cells are generated during the germinal center reaction, and it is likely that they here acquire the potential to develop into long-lived cells. To achieve longevity, these cells require factors provided by the microenvironment. Indeed, only a few of the plasmablasts arising during an immune response will differentiate into mature plasma cells, which may survive for decades in specialized survival niches in the bone marrow.

Author(s): 
Chu, Van T.
Berek, Claudia
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is commonly used as a dietary supplement and may affect prostate pathophysiology when metabolized to androgens and/or estrogens. Human prostate LAPC-4 cancer cells with a wild type androgen receptor (AR) were treated with DHEA, androgens dihydrotestosterone (DHT), T, or R1881), and E2 and assayed for prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein and gene expression. In LAPC-4 monocultures, DHEA and E2 induced little or no increase in PSA protein or mRNA expression compared to androgen-treated cells.

Author(s): 
Arnold, Julia T.
Gray, Nora E.
Jacobowitz, Ketzela
Viswanathan, Lavanya
Cheung, Pui W.
McFann, Kimberly K.
Le, Hanh
Blackman, Marc R.
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is commonly used in the USA as a nutritional supplement for antiaging, metabolic support or other uses. Investigations into understanding the effects of DHEA on human prostate cancer progression have posed more questions than answers and highlight the importance of communications between stromal and epithelial tuoitiuot elements within the prostate that contribute to the regulation of DHEA metabolism.

Author(s): 
Arnold, Julia T.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Prevention Research (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is used as a dietary supplement and can be metabolized to androgens and/or estrogens in the prostate. We investigated the hypothesis that DHEA metabolism may be increased in a reactive prostate stroma environment in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), and further, whether red clover extract, which contains a variety of compounds including isoflavones, can reverse this effect.

Author(s): 
Gray, Nora E.
Liu, Xunxian
Choi, Renee
Blackman, Marc R.
Arnold, Julia T.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

The reactive stromal phenotype is an important factor for prostate cancer progression and may be a new target for treatment and prevention. A new high efficiency preclinical protocol, the EPI bioassay, reflects the interaction of endocrine, paracrine and immune, (EPI) factors on induced androgen metabolism in human prostate reactive stroma. The bioassay is based on co-culturing human primary prostate stromal cells and LAPC-4 prostatic adenocarcinoma cells in a downscaled format of 96-well-plates for testing multiple doses of multiple target compounds.

Author(s): 
Vollmer, Günter
Helle, Janina
Amri, Hakima
Liu, Xunxian
Arnold, Julia T.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

The inflammatory tissue microenvironment can be an active promoter in preneoplastic cancer lesions. Altered steroid hormone metabolism as induced by the inflammatory microenvironment may contribute to epithelial cancer progression. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant endogenous steroid hormone present in human serum and can be metabolized to DHEA, androgens and/or estrogens in peripheral tissues. We have previously reported that TGFβ1-induced reactive prostate stromal cells increase DHEA metabolism to active androgens and alter prostate cancer cell gene expression.

Author(s): 
Piao, Yun-shang
Wiesenfeld, Paddy
Sprando, Robert
Arnold, Julia T.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Prevention Research (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is used as a dietary supplement and can be metabolized to androgens and/or estrogens in the prostate. We investigated the hypothesis that DHEA metabolism may be increased in a reactive prostate stroma environment in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), and further, whether red clover extract, which contains a variety of compounds including isoflavones, can reverse this effect.

Author(s): 
Gray, Nora E.
Liu, Xunxian
Choi, Renee
Blackman, Marc R.
Arnold, Julia T.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Leukocyte Biology

The adipocytes are the predominant cell types that constitute the bulk of the thymic microenvironment by the fifth decade of life in healthy humans. An age-related increase in thymic adiposity is associated with reduced thymopoiesis and compromised immune surveillance in the elderly. However, the mechanisms regulating the generation of intrathymic adipocytes during aging remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that the CD45- thymic stromal cells (TSCs) are amenable to adipogenesis.

Author(s): 
Yang, Hyunwon
Youm, Yun-Hee
Sun, Yuxiang
Rim, Jong-Seop
Galbán, Craig J.
Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa
Dixit, Vishwa Deep
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Aging of thymus is characterized by reduction in naive T cell output together with progressive replacement of lymphostromal thymic zones with adipocytes. Determining how calorie restriction (CR), a prolongevity metabolic intervention, regulates thymic aging may allow identification of relevant mechanisms to prevent immunosenescence. Using a mouse model of chronic CR, we found that a reduction in age-related thymic adipogenic mechanism is coupled with maintenance of thymic function. The CR increased cellular density in the thymic cortex and medulla and preserved the epithelial signatures.

Author(s): 
Yang, Hyunwon
Youm, Yun-Hee
Dixit, Vishwa Deep
Publication Title: 
Blood

Honokiol (HNK) is an active component purified from magnolia, a plant used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. Here we show that HNK significantly induces cytotoxicity in human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines and tumor cells from patients with relapsed refractory MM. Neither coculture with bone marrow stromal cells nor cytokines (interleukin-6 and insulin-like growth factor-1) protect against HNK-induced cytotoxicity. Although activation of caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9 is triggered by HNK, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk does not abrogate HNK-induced apoptosis.

Author(s): 
Ishitsuka, Kenji
Hideshima, Teru
Hamasaki, Makoto
Raje, Noopur
Kumar, Shaji
Hideshima, Hiromasa
Shiraishi, Norihiko
Yasui, Hiroshi
Roccaro, Aldo M.
Richardson, Paul
Podar, Klaus
Le Gouill, Steven
Chauhan, Dharminder
Tamura, Kazuo
Arbiser, Jack
Anderson, Kenneth C.

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