We studied the effects of pentobarbital and antagonists of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine receptors on extracellular activity in ventrobasal thalamic slices. Pentobarbital at sedative-hypnotic concentration (20 microM) reversibly induced 1-15 Hz oscillations. Sustained oscillations required electrical stimulation of internal capsule, but not elevated temperature or low [Mg2+]. Anesthetic concentration (200 microM) of pentobarbital evoked only transient oscillations. Kynurenate-sensitive glutamate receptors were essential for oscillations.
Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanol extract of Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) leaves to investigate neuropharmacological, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal activity and effect on gastrointestinal motility. All studies were conducted in mice using doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight. In the pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis test, the extract statistically reduced the time for the onset of sleep at 500 mg/kg dose and (dose-dependently) increased the total sleeping time at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose.
The present study was designed to investigate the role of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified volatile anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneally injecting (i.p.) appropriate doses of ether, enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) injected different doses of strychnine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using the awaken test and the pain index in hot-plate test (HPPI) using the hot-plate test.
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that several general anesthetics, including propofol, potentiate glycine receptor function. Furthermore, glycine receptors exist throughout the central nervous system, including areas of the brain thought to be involved in sleep. However, the role of glycine receptors in anesthetic-induced hypnosis has not been determined. METHODS: Experiments were conducted in rats where the loss of righting reflex (LORR) was used as a marker of the hypnotic state.
BACKGROUND: Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system (CNS), and its receptors (GlyRs) are well known for their effects in the spinal cord and the lower brainstem. Accumulating evidence indicates that GlyRs are more widely distributed in the CNS, including many supraspinal regions. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that ethanol potentiates the function of these brain GlyRs, yet the behavioral role of the brain GlyRs has not been well explored. METHODS: Experiments were conducted in rats.
The effect of detoxification on Strychnos nux-vomica seeds by traditional processing with aloe and ginger juices (B), by frying in cow ghee (C), and by boiling in cow milk (D) was investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these samples were subjected to spontaneous motor activity (SMA), pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis, PTZ induced convulsions, diazepam-assisted protection, and morphine-induced catalepsy. All samples reduced SMA and inhibited catalepsy.
Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyR) play a major role in the excitability of CNS neurons and are also a major target of many drugs including some general anesthetics and ethanol. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is an important substrate responsible for cognitive function and for sedation, as well as hypnosis (unconsciousness) which is induced by general anesthetics and ethanol. However, the functions and the physiological and pharmacological properties of GlyRs in mature PFC neurons have not been well studied.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
This study investigated the hypnotic, anti-convulsant and anxiolytic effects of 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (BPNE) obtained from the oil of Dennettia tripetala G. Baker (Annonaceae) and established its mechanism of action. The essential oil (EO) from the leaf, fruit and seed was obtained by hydrodistillation, followed by isolation of BPNE purified to 99.2% by accelerated gradient chromatography on silica, and identified by NMR and GC-MS. The pure BPNE and EO of the dried seed (93.6%) were comparatively evaluated for hypnotic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects in mice.
The present study was performed to evaluate the central nervous system inhibitory effects of the essential oil from SuHeXiang Wan (Storax pill), a prescription usually used for treating epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine, on fragrance inhalation (aroma therapy). Preinhalation of the fragrance oil markedly delayed the appearance of pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion, but showed weak activities on picrotoxin- and strychnine-induced convulsions, which implies this drug may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines: AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines
Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana).