Subcutaneous Fat

Publication Title: 
Cell Proliferation

OBJECTIVES: This study has intended to investigate longevity of subcutaneous fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SF-MSCs) under extensive culturing. It has also focused on optimization of culture media for them over prolonged periods in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated SF-MSCs with reference to phenotypic characterization, proliferative ability, karyotype stability and differentiation potency with early (P3) and late passage (P20) conditions, using four different media, DMEM-LG, ALPHA-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO.

Author(s): 
Dhanasekaran, M.
Indumathi, S.
Rashmi, M.
Rajkumar, J. S.
Sudarsanam, D.
Publication Title: 
Current Aging Science

The thrifty aged hypothesis (TAH) holds that aging is a "saving program", a set of strategies all of them focused to reduce energy consumption in the post-reproductive age. Aged adults remove fewer energy resources from the environment, and the remaining fuel can be profitably used by offspring. Thus, from an evolutionary point of view, the variable submitted to natural selection would be the amount of energy removed by post-reproductive individuals from the environment, favoring "reduced energy extraction" (REE) strategies.

Author(s): 
Zafon, Carles
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks. Although both groups exhibited similar weight gain during the intervention, visceral adipose volume was significantly increased only in subjects consuming fructose.

Author(s): 
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Schwarz, Jean Marc
Keim, Nancy L.
Griffen, Steven C.
Bremer, Andrew A.
Graham, James L.
Hatcher, Bonnie
Cox, Chad L.
Dyachenko, Artem
Zhang, Wei
McGahan, John P.
Seibert, Anthony
Krauss, Ronald M.
Chiu, Sally
Schaefer, Ernst J.
Ai, Masumi
Otokozawa, Seiko
Nakajima, Katsuyuki
Nakano, Takamitsu
Beysen, Carine
Hellerstein, Marc K.
Berglund, Lars
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Bioelectromagnetics

The aim of the present study was to determine millimeter wave (MMW) absorption by blood vessels traversing the subcutaneous fat layer of murine skin. Most calculations were performed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. We used two types of models: (1) a rectangular block of multilayer tissue with blood vessels traversing the fat layer and (2) cylindrical models with circular and elliptical cross-sections simulating the real geometry of murine limbs.

Author(s): 
Alekseev, Stanislav I.
Ziskin, Marvin C.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Plant extracts continue to represent an untapped source of renewable therapeutic compounds for the treatment and prevention of illnesses including chronic metabolic disorders. With the increase in worldwide obesity and its related morbidities, the need for identifying safe and effective treatments is also rising. As such, use of primary human adipose-derived stem cells represents a physiologically relevant cell system to screen for bioactive agents in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related complications.

Author(s): 
Buehrer, Benjamin M.
Duffin, David J.
Lea-Currie, Y. Renee
Ribnicky, David
Raskin, Ilya
Stephens, Jacqueline M.
Cefalu, William T.
Gimble, Jeffrey M.
Publication Title: 
Stem Cells and Development

We have previously demonstrated that hypoxia stimulates adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise mechanism involved in the ROS generation by ASCs is not well understood. We sought to investigate in this work: (1) which subtype of NADPH oxidase (Nox) is primarily expressed in ASCs; (2) where Nox4 is localized in ASCs; and (3) whether silencing of Nox4 attenuates hypoxia-enhanced function of ASC.

Author(s): 
Kim, Ji Hye
Song, Seung-Yong
Park, Sang Gyu
Song, Sun U.
Xia, Ying
Sung, Jong-Hyuk
Publication Title: 
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Discuss the initial evaluation of a patient presenting with lower extremity enlargement. 2. Distinguish underlying medical conditions causing lower extremity enlargement, including lymphedema and lipedema. 3. Discuss appropriate management and treatment for patients presenting with these conditions.

Author(s): 
Warren, Anne G.
Janz, Brian A.
Borud, Loren J.
Slavin, Sumner A.
Publication Title: 
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Skin laxity of the body is a growing cosmetic concern. Laxity can result from chronological or photoaging and changes in body dimensions during pregnancy or weight loss. The end result is loose, sagging skin, and localized fat deposits. Liposuction and abdominoplasty or brachioplasty are established approaches to these issues. Patient desire for alternatives to surgical correction has spawned the development of non-invasive body contouring devices.

Author(s): 
Brightman, Lori
Weiss, Elliot
Chapas, Anne M.
Karen, Julie
Hale, Elizabeth
Bernstein, Leonard
Geronemus, Roy G.
Publication Title: 
Korean journal of ophthalmology: KJO

We report a case of ophthalmic artery obstruction combined with brain infarction following periocular autologous fat injection. The patient, a 44-year-old woman, visited our hospital for decreased visual acuity in her left eye and dysarthria one hour after receiving an autologous fat injection in the periocular area. Her best corrected visual acuity for the concerned eye was no light perception. Also, a relative afferent pupillary defect was detected in this eye. The left fundus exhibited widespread retinal whitening with visible emboli in several retinal arterioles.

Author(s): 
Lee, Chang Mok
Hong, In Hwan
Park, Sung Pyo
Publication Title: 
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

BACKGROUND: Many breast cancer patients are plagued by the disabling complication of upper limb lymphedema after axillary surgery. Conservative treatments using massage and compression therapy do not offer a lasting relief, as they fail to address the chronic transformation of edema into excess adipose tissue. Liposuction to address the adipose nature of the lymphedema has provided an opportunity for a detailed analysis of the stromal fraction of lymphedema-associated fat to clarify the molecular mechanisms for this adipogenic transformation.

Author(s): 
Levi, Benjamin
Glotzbach, Jason P.
Sorkin, Michael
Hyun, Jeong
Januszyk, Michael
Wan, Derrick C.
Li, Shuli
Nelson, Emily R.
Longaker, Michael T.
Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

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