Substance Abuse, Intravenous

Publication Title: 
Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prevention and control of HCV infection is complex and challenging in terms of describing risk factors and modes of transmission. This meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the best available data on HCV risk factors worldwide and in Egypt. METHODS: Through exhaustive literature searches (1989-2013) of HCV risk factors, 357 original eligible articles were included in this study.

Author(s): 
El-Ghitany, Engy Mohamed
Abdel Wahab, Moataza M.
Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W.
Hassouna, Safaa
Farghaly, Azza G.
Publication Title: 
Sociology of Health & Illness

Drawing on qualitative interview accounts with people who have injected drugs, we deploy ideas of biological and therapeutic citizenship to explore how the negotiation of access to hepatitis C treatment enacts patient citizenship potential. We find that the patient citizenship made through hepatitis C treatment divides those who are deserving from those who are not, largely in relation to their presentations of self-control, responsibility and recovery regarding drug use.

Author(s): 
Rhodes, Tim
Harris, Magdalena
Martin, Anthea
Publication Title: 
AIDS and behavior

To explore the role of informal caregivers in adherence, we compared adherence reports by caregivers to those of care recipients. We identified individual-level and relationship factors associated with agreement between caregivers' reports of recipients' adherence and assessed viral suppression. Participants were care recipients, who were on ART and had ever injected drugs, and their caregivers (N†=†258 dyads). Nearly three-fourths of caregivers' reports of recipients' ART adherence agreed with recipients' viral suppression status.

Author(s): 
Knowlton, Amy R.
Mitchell, Mary M.
Robinson, Allysha C.
Nguyen, Trang Q.
Isenberg, Sarina
Denison, Julie
Publication Title: 
AIDS (London, England)

OBJECTIVES: To study how condom use in injecting drug users' (IDU) relationships differs according to whether they are HIV-infected, and to whether their sex partner is an IDU. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 317 street-recruited IDU were HIV-antibody tested and interviewed about 421 relationships with particular sex partners. RESULTS: Condoms were consistently (100%) used in sex between partners (during the previous 30 days) in 33% of these relationships, and their use was significantly more frequent in relationships of seropositive IDU and in relationships with non-IDU partners.

Author(s): 
Friedman, S. R.
Jose, B.
Neaigus, A.
Goldstein, M.
Curtis, R.
Ildefonso, G.
Mota, P.
Des Jarlais, D. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

We assessed willingness to participate in an HIV recombinant gp120 bivalent subtypes B/E candidate vaccine efficacy trial among 193 injection drug users (IDUs) attending drug treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. IDUs previously enrolled in a prospective cohort study were invited to group sessions describing a potential trial, then completed questionnaires assessing comprehension and willingness to participate.

Author(s): 
MacQueen, K. M.
Vanichseni, S.
Kitayaporn, D.
Lin, L. S.
Buavirat, A.
Naiwatanakul, T.
Raktham, S.
Mock, P.
Heyward, W. L.
Des Jarlais, D. C.
Choopanya, K.
Mastro, T. D.
Publication Title: 
JONA'S healthcare law, ethics and regulation

A male patient was admitted to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) unit for hemodialysis. His history revealed that he was homeless and that he had tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+). He also had a history of alcohol and intravenous drug abuse and tuberculosis. Based on the results of a chest X-ray, he was placed in respiratory isolation. During the next few days of his hospitalization, he exhibited nonadherent behavior toward the treatment regime.

Author(s): 
Bosek, M. S.
Burton, L. A.
Savage, T. A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

This study examined perceived risks, benefits, and desired information related to willingness to volunteer in preventive HIV vaccine trials. SAMPLE: Purposive sampling was used to select 90 participants among injecting drug users (Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.); gay men (San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.); and black Americans (Durham, NC, U.S.A.). METHODS: A qualitative interview guide elicited perceived benefits, risks, and desired information relating to trial participation. Themes were developed from the transcribed texts and from freelists.

Author(s): 
Strauss, R. P.
Sengupta, S.
Kegeles, S.
McLellan, E.
Metzger, D.
Eyre, S.
Khanani, F.
Emrick, C. B.
MacQueen, K. M.
Publication Title: 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)

AIMS: To examine injecting drug user (IDU) motivations as research participants. DESIGN: Convenience sampling facilitated by recruitment notices distributed through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), and snowballing within peer networks. SETTING: NSPs in six suburbs throughout the Melbourne metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty-four current IDUs. The mean age was 28 years, 62% were male, and 80% nominated heroin as preferred drug.

Author(s): 
Fry, C.
Dwyer, R.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Public Health

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the differential effects of face-to-face interviewing and audio-computer assisted self-interviewing (audio-CASI) on categories of questions. METHODS: Syringe exchange program participants (n = 1417) completed face-to-face interviews or audio-CASI. The questionnaire was categorized into the groups "stigmatized behaviors," "neutral behaviors," and "psychological distress." Interview modes were compared for questions from each category.

Author(s): 
Newman, Jessica Clark
Des Jarlais, Don C.
Turner, Charles F.
Gribble, Jay
Cooley, Phillip
Paone, Denise
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

OBJECTIVE: To assess recent developments in the HIV epidemic in injecting drug users (IDUs) in New York City. With >50,000 cases of AIDS in IDUs, New York has experienced the largest HIV/AIDS epidemic in IDUs of any city in the world. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional surveys conducted continuously from 1990 to 2001 of IDUs entering the Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC) drug detoxification program in New York City. HIV serostatus, use of prevention services, and risk behaviors were measured.

Author(s): 
Des Jarlais, Don C.
Perlis, Theresa
Arasteh, Kamyar
Hagan, Holly
Milliken, Judith
Braine, Naomi
Yancovitz, Stanley
Mildvan, Donna
Perlman, David C.
Maslow, Carey
Friedman, Samuel R.

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