Substance P

Publication Title: 
Seminars in Gastrointestinal Disease

At present, the medical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are focused on topical, locally active antiinflammatories and systemic immunosuppressives, which are thought to exert their targeted effects in the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is a paucity of controlled trials assessing the impact of mind, central nervous system (CNS), and neuromodulation on the overly active immune response in the intestinal mucosa.

Author(s): 
Anton, P. A.
Publication Title: 
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immune-suppressive properties, follow a pattern of multilineage differentiation, and exhibit transdifferentiation potential. Ease in expansion from adult bone marrow, as well as its separation from ethical issues, makes MSCs appealing for clinical application. MSCs treated with retinoic acid resulted in synaptic transmission, based on immunostaining of synaptophysin and electrophysiological studies. In situ hybridization indicated that the neurotransmitter gene preprotachykinin-I was expressed in these cells.

Author(s): 
Cho, Kyung Jin
Trzaska, Katarzyna A.
Greco, Steven J.
McArdle, Joseph
Wang, Fu Shun
Ye, Jiang-Hong
Rameshwar, Pranela
Publication Title: 
Presse Médicale (Paris, France: 1983)

GRAPEFRUIT: Essentially consumed in the form of juices with its bitterness helping to quench thirst, grapefruit contains not only vitamin C but also many complex antioxidizers, licopene, lemonoids and naringine. It also contains large quantities of pectin. Grapefruit juice is a metabolic inhibitor of medicinal substances that constitute an exclusive target for the CYP 3A4 isozyme and glycoprotein P in the enterocytes. Above all, it affects the drugs with strong intestinal metabolic first pass effect, phenomenon provoking the reduction of their oral bioavailability.

Author(s): 
Neuman, Maur
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

The influence of nociceptive peripheral input on the response characteristics of spinal interneurons may result in long-term alterations of interneuronal excitability and modify their responses to subsequent stimuli. Such neuromodulation has been found to result in physiological changes including hyperalgesia, lowering of pain thresholds, expansion of receptive fields and changes in response behaviors of muscles.

Author(s): 
Slosberg, M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a single spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) on the in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin (IL) 1beta, in relation to the systemic (in vivo) levels of neurotransmitter substance P (SP). METHODS: Sixty-four asymptomatic subjects were assigned to SMT, sham manipulation, or venipuncture control group. SMT subjects received a single adjustment in the thoracic spine. Blood and serum samples were obtained from subjects before and then at 20 minutes and 2 hours after intervention.

Author(s): 
Teodorczyk-Injeyan, Julita A.
Injeyan, H. Stephen
Ruegg, Richard
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Sho-hange-ka-bukuryou-to, a traditional Chinese herbal (Kampo) medicine, has been used to treat hyperemesis of pregnancy, nausea and vomiting. Most traditional herbal medicines are prepared from several herbs. For example, Sho-hange-ka-bukuryo-to is prepared from three herbs: Pinelliae Tuber, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Hoelen. Thus, to determine the precise mechanism of the pharmacological effects of Chinese herbal medicines is too difficult. So we have elucidated the effect of some Chinese herbal medicines by examining the change of the plasma levels of brain-gut peptides.

Author(s): 
Katagiri, Fumihiko
Itoh, Hiroki
Takeyama, Masaharu
Publication Title: 
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Yiqi Kaimi Recipe (YQKMR), a traditional Chinese compound medicine, on gastrointestinal motility and neuropeptides in rats with colonic slow transit constipation. METHODS: Eighty specific pathogen free rats were included, and there were sixty rats with slow transit constipation (STC) and twenty normal rats. Sixty rats with STC were randomly divided into untreated group, cisapride-treated group and YQKMR-treated group, and twenty normal rats were allocated to normal control group.

Author(s): 
He, Chun-mei
Lu, Jin-Gen
Cao, Yong-Qing
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) is a prescription in traditional chinese medicine (TCM), used for relieving abdominal pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of TXYF on experimental visceral hypersensitivity (VH) models. TXYF affected the abdominal withdrawal reflex produced by colonic distention in maternal separation-induced visceral hypersensitivity rats, in a dosage-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Hu, Xu-Guang
Xu, Di
Zhao, Yue
Yang, Xiang-Bo
Meng, Jiang
Shen, Han
Guo, Jiao
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

Inflammation is associated with various pulmonary diseases and contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. We previously identified a proinflammatory signaling pathway triggered by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in which stimulation of G(q)-coupled GPCRs results in activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Because damage to the lung causes the release of multiple mediators acting through G(q)-coupled GPCRs, this signaling pathway is likely to contribute to inflammatory processes in the injured lung.

Author(s): 
Hoyle, Gary W.
Hoyle, Christine I.
Chen, Jing
Chang, Weiyuan
Williams, Ronald W.
Rando, Roy J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences

As a traditional Chinese medicine, dragon's blood (DB) is widely used in treating various pains for thousands of years due to its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In the present study, we observed that intragastric administration of DB at dosages of 0.14, 0.56, and 1.12 g/kg potently inhibited paw edema, hyperalgesia, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, or preprotachykinin-A mRNA expression in carrageenan-inflamed or sciatic nerve-injured (chronic constriction injury) rats, respectively.

Author(s): 
Li, Yu-Sang
Wang, Jun-Xian
Jia, Mei-Mei
Liu, Min
Li, Xiao-Jun
Tang, He-Bin

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