Substance Withdrawal Syndrome

Publication Title: 
Psychopharmacology

RATIONALE: Smoking cessation is associated with cigarette cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (TWS), and exercise appears to ameliorate many of these negative effects. A number of studies have examined the relationships between exercise, cigarette cravings, and TWS. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (a) to review and update the literature examining the effects of short bouts of exercise on cigarette cravings, TWS, affect, and smoking behaviour and (b) to conduct meta-analyses of the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings.

Author(s): 
Roberts, Vaughan
Maddison, Ralph
Simpson, Caroline
Bullen, Chris
Prapavessis, Harry
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

Hahnemann considered the secondary action of medicines to be a law of nature and reviewed the conditions under which it occurs. It is closely related to the rebound effects observed with many modern drugs. I review the evidence of the rebound effect of statins that support the similitude principle. In view of their indications in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, statins are widely prescribed.

Author(s): 
Teixeira, Marcus Zulian
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is based on treatment by similitude ('like cures like') administering to sick individuals substances that cause similar symptoms in healthy individuals, employing the secondary and paradoxical action of the organism as therapeutic response. This vital or homeostatic reaction of the organism can be scientifically explained by the rebound effect of drugs, resulting in worsening of symptoms after suspension of treatment.

Author(s): 
Teixeira, Marcus Zulian
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is based on the principle of similitude (similia similibus curentur) using medicines that cause effects similar to the symptoms of disease in order to stimulate the reaction of the organism. Such vital, homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism is closely related to rebound effect of drugs. METHOD: Review of the literature concerning the rebound effects of drugs used to suppress gastric acidity, particularly proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). RESULTS: The mechanism of action of these effects is discussed.

Author(s): 
Teixeira, Marcus Zulian
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom has had a significant increase in addiction to and use of cocaine among 16-29-year olds from 6% in 1998 to 10% in 2000. In 2000, the United Kingdom had the highest recorded consumption of "recent use" cocaine in Europe, with 3.3% of young adults. Acupuncture is quick, inexpensive, and relatively safe, and may establish itself as an important addiction service in the future.

Author(s): 
D'Alberto, Attilio
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a serious risk to health: several therapies are available to assist those who wish to stop. Smokers who approach publicly funded stop-smoking clinics in the UK are currently offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion, and group behaviour therapy, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. Acupuncture and acupressure are also used to help smokers, though a systematic review of the evidence of their effectiveness was inconclusive.

Author(s): 
White, Adrian R.
Moody, Russell C.
Campbell, John L.
Publication Title: 
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

This review extends a prior meta-analysis of acupuncture's utility for treating opioid detoxification, addressing the efficacy of acupuncture when combined with allopathic therapies. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing acupuncture combined with opioid agonist treatment versus opioid agonists alone for treating symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad's scale (1-2 = low; 3-5 = high).

Author(s): 
Liu, Ting-ting
Shi, Jie
Epstein, David H.
Bao, Yan-Ping
Lu, Lin
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a serious risk to health: several therapies are available to assist those who wish to stop. Smokers who approach publicly funded stop-smoking clinics in the UK are currently offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion, and group behaviour therapy, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. Acupuncture and acupressure are also used to help smokers, though a systematic review of the evidence of their effectiveness was inconclusive.

Author(s): 
White, Adrian R.
Moody, Russell C.
Campbell, John L.
Publication Title: 
Drug and Alcohol Dependence

BACKGROUND: This systematic review aims to estimate the effects of acupuncture for adults with substance use disorders (SUDs). METHODS: We searched 7 electronic databases and bibliographies of previous studies to identify eligible randomized trials. Two independent reviewers screened citations, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We performed random effects meta-analyses. We assessed quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: We included 41 studies with 5,227 participants.

Author(s): 
Grant, Sean
Kandrack, Ryan
Motala, Aneesa
Shanman, Roberta
Booth, Marika
Miles, Jeremy
Sorbero, Melony
Hempel, Susanne
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychiatric Research

Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a crucial role in the genesis and maintenance of alcohol dependence. Epigenetic regulation via promoter specific DNA methylation of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT) may influence altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in alcoholism. Aim of the present study was to investigate DNA promoter methylation of DAT in early alcohol withdrawal and in relation to alcohol craving. We analyzed blood samples of 76 patients admitted for detoxification treatment and compared them to 35 healthy controls.

Author(s): 
Hillemacher, Thomas
Frieling, Helge
Hartl, Thomas
Wilhelm, Julia
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bleich, Stefan

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