Sudan

Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

The paper seeks to examine the economic impact of malaria in the Sudan. Using longitudinal empirical data from a farming population in the Gezira, it examines and quantifies labour losses through malaria within families, observing simultaneously the manner in which altruism or "nafeer" helps families and communities insure their members against disease and other consequences of uncertainty.

Author(s): 
Nur, E. T.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Documentation on the efficacy of artesunate in Africa is limited, and no experience of artesunate use in Sudan is documented. Severe malaria in rural areas of Sudan, where facilities for the safe and effective use of parenteral quinine are lacking, is a frequent problem. Early treatment with artesunate suppositories would provide a simple method for use by unskilled staff and would be an alternative approach to treat malaria in settings with poor resources.

Author(s): 
Awad, M. I.
Alkadru, A. M. Y.
Behrens, R. H.
Baraka, O. Z.
Eltayeb, I. B.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

To provide advice on the rational use of antimalarial drugs, Médecins Sans Frontières conducted a randomized, an open label efficacy study in Kajo Keji, an area of high transmission of malaria in southern Sudan. The efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) were measured in a 28-day in vivo study, with results corrected by PCR genotyping. Of 2010 children screened, 115 children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized into each group to receive a supervised course of treatment.

Author(s): 
Stivanello, Elisa
Cavailler, Philippe
Cassano, Francesco
Omar, Sabah Ahmed
Kariuki, Daniel
Mwangi, Jonathan
Piola, Patrice
Guthmann, Jean-Paul
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan has been in process of change since 2003. Preceding the change, this study aimed to determine which artemisinin-based combination therapies is more effective to treat uncomplicated malaria in Malakal, Upper Nile, Sudan. METHODS: Clinical trial to assess the efficacy of 2 antimalarial therapies to treat P. falciparum infections in children aged 6-59 months, in a period of 42 days after treatment. RESULTS: A total of 269 children were followed up to 42 days.

Author(s): 
van den Broek, Ingrid
Amsalu, Ribka
Balasegaram, Manica
Hepple, Pamela
Alemu, Engudaye
Hussein, El Badri
Al-Faith, Muhammed
Montgomery, Jacqui
Checchi, Francesco
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and effective treatment with an appropriate drug form the main components of the World Health Organization's strategy to reduce malaria related mortality. The few available drugs might be safeguarded if combined with artesunate. The addition of artesunate to a standard antimalarial treatment substantially reduces treatment failure, recrudescence and gametocyte carriage. METHODS: During late 2004, the efficacy of artesunate (4 mg/kg.

Author(s): 
Elamin, Sakina B.
Malik, Elfatih M.
Abdelgadir, Tarig
Khamiss, Ammar H.
Mohammed, Mamoun M.
Ahmed, Elderderi S.
Adam, Ishag
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: In Sudan, chloroquine (CQ) remains the most frequently used drug for falciparum malaria for more than 40 years. The change to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was initiated in 2004 using the co-blister of artesunate + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS+SP) and artemether + lumefantrine (ART+LUM), as first- and second-line, respectively. This article describes the evidence-base, the process for policy change and it reflects the experience of one year implementation. Relevant published and unpublished documents were reviewed.

Author(s): 
Malik, E. M.
Mohamed, T. A.
Elmardi, K. A.
Mowien, R. M.
Elhassan, A. H.
Elamin, S. B.
Mannan, A. A.
Ahmed, E. S.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy is increasingly being adopted as first-line antimalarial therapy. The choice of appropriate therapy depends on efficacy, cost, side effects, and simplicity of administration.

Author(s): 
Adam, Ishag
Magzoub, Mamoun
Osman, Maha E.
Khalil, Insaf F.
Alifrangis, Michael
Elmardi, Khalid A.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-containing therapies are highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Insufficient numbers of tablets and inadequate package inserts result in sub-optimal dosing and possible treatment failure. This study reports the case of three, non-immune, expatriate workers with P. falciparum acquired in Africa, who failed to respond to artemisinin-based therapy. Sub-therapeutic dosing in accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations was the probable cause.

Author(s): 
Jackson, Yves
Chappuis, François
Loutan, Louis
Taylor, Walter
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: A combination of artesunate (AS) plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as second-line treatment are currently recommended against uncomplicated P. falciparum infection in Sudan. However, there is limited information on the efficacy of ACTs in the country and only one report of PCR-corrected results for AS/SP only. METHODS: The WHO protocol for the assessment of antimalarial drug efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was employed.

Author(s): 
Mukhtar, Ebtihal A.
Gadalla, Nahla B.
El-Zaki, Salah-Eldin G.
Mukhtar, Izdihar
Mansour, Fathi A.
Babiker, Ahmed
El-Sayed, Badria B.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: In areas of seasonal malaria transmission, treatment of asymptomatic carriers of malaria parasites, whose parasitaemia persists at low densities throughout the dry season, could be a useful strategy for malaria control. We carried out a randomized trial to compare two drug regimens for clearance of parasitaemia in order to identify the optimum regimen for use in mass drug administration in the dry season.

Author(s): 
El-Sayed, Badria
El-Zaki, Salah-Eldin
Babiker, Hamza
Gadalla, Nahla
Ageep, Tellal
Mansour, Fathi
Baraka, Omer
Milligan, Paul
Babiker, Ahmed

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