Publication Title: 

Sufentanil citrate is a potent analogue of fentanyl that has been evaluated primarily for use in opioid anesthesia. It is a pure mu receptor agonist and produces the typical spectrum of opioid effects. The major side effects are truncal rigidity and prolonged respiratory depression. In doses of 4-30 micrograms/kg sufentanil produces hypnosis and suppresses most hemodynamic and hormonal responses to surgery without producing significant cardiovascular depression. In this respect sufentanil and fentanyl have clear advantages over morphine, meperidine and potent inhalation anesthetics.

Rosow, C. E.
Publication Title: 
Der Anaesthesist

Sufentanil, a synthetic opioid that is 5-10 times as potent as fentanyl, has been suggested for use during neurosurgical procedures because it maintains cardiovascular stability and produces hypnosis without the use of additional anesthetic agents. Doses as low as 2.5 are reported to create deep levels of anesthesia as demonstrated by EEG changes to high-amplitude delta-waves. However, there are no reports concerning the effects of sufentanil on blood flow and metabolism in the human brain.

Stephan, H.
Gröger, P.
Weyland, A.
Hoeft, A.
Sonntag, H.
Publication Title: 
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica

We studied nociception-associated arousal following laryngoscopy and intubation in patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery, using EEG power spectra and hemodynamics. Either fentanyl (7 micrograms/kg; n = 30) or sufentanil (1 microgram/kg; n = 30) were given in a randomized fashion to induce anesthesia in heavily premedicated patients, followed by pancuronium bromide (100 micrograms/kg).

Freye, E.
Dehnen-Seipel, H.
Latasch, L.
Behler, M.
Wilder-Smith, O. H.
Publication Title: 
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

Closed-loop control of propofol delivery was instituted in three patients who received a propofol infusion as part of: (Case 1) general "balanced" anesthesia, (Case 2) total intravenous anesthesia, and (Case 3) monitored anesthesia care. The bispectral index was the input variable used in a proportioned, integral and differential controller to determine the infusion rate of propofol required to maintain a stable level of hypnosis (Cases 1 and 2) or sedation (Case 3).

Sakai, T.
Matsuki, A.
White, P. F.
Giesecke, A. H.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

Hypnotics and opioids interact synergistically to block responses to surgery and different dose combinations may be used to provide adequate anesthesia. In this study, we sought to determine the optimal concentrations of propofol and sufentanil, given by target-controlled infusions, to ensure hemodynamic stability, adequate hypnosis (assessed by electroencephalogram bispectral index), and fast recovery for a moderately painful operation.

Hentgen, Elisabeth
Houfani, Malik
Billard, Valérie
Capron, Florent
Ropars, Jean-Marc
Travagli, Jean Paul
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology

Spectral Entropy (SpEn) is an alternative tool to the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring depth of hypnosis. SpEn measures response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). This open-label prospective study was designed to evaluate SpEn and BIS in 20 patients undergoing elective supratentorial neurosurgery with craniotomy and resection of brain tumors. SpEn and BIS were obtained continuously by Datex Ohmeda M-entropy module S/5 (Helsinki, Finland) and Aspect Medical System BIS (Newton), respectively.

Paolo Martorano, Pietro
Falzetti, Gabriele
Pelaia, Paolo
Publication Title: 
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

BACKGROUND: this study was to estimate the predicted effect-site concentration of propofol administered by a target-controlled infusion (TCI) for maintenance of anesthesia based on the bispectral (BIS) index as a measure of hypnosis in laparoscopic surgery. METHOD: one-hundred and sixty unpremedicated patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy were assigned randomly to receive one of the target effect-site concentrations of propofol 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 microg/ml during TCI with propofol and sufentanil.

Jung, S. M.
Yang, C. W.
Oh, J.-Y.
Cho, C. K.
Kang, P. S.
Lim, Y. S.
Jeong, S.-J.
Kwon, H. U.
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