Suicide

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) there is an increased prevalence of depression compared to the general population. It is unknown whether non-pharmacological interventions for depression are effective for people with TBI. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for depression in adults and children with TBI at reducing the diagnosis and severity of symptoms of depression. SEARCH METHODS: We ran the most recent search on 11 February 2015.

Author(s): 
Gertler, Paul
Tate, Robyn L.
Cameron, Ian D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: This research investigates personality variables--aggression and disorders of conduct, depression, and separation anxiety--mediating suicidal behavior in psychiatrically hospitalized urban minority adolescents. METHOD: Four matched groups of 26 subjects (N = 104) participated: suicidal adolescents with, and suicidal adolescents without, a conduct disorder diagnosis, nonsuicidal adolescents with a conduct disorder diagnosis, and a nonpsychiatric control group.

Author(s): 
Feldman, M.
Wilson, A.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Alterations in gene expression in the suicide brain have been reported and for several genes DNA methylation as an epigenetic regulator is thought to play a role. rRNA genes, that encode ribosomal RNA, are the backbone of the protein synthesis machinery and levels of rRNA gene promoter methylation determine rRNA transcription.

Author(s): 
McGowan, Patrick O.
Sasaki, Aya
Huang, Tony C. T.
Unterberger, Alexander
Suderman, Matthew
Ernst, Carl
Meaney, Michael J.
Turecki, Gustavo
Szyf, Moshe
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychiatry

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the reprogramming of gene expression in response to stressful stimuli. This investigation determined whether epigenetic phenomena might similarly be associated with suicide/depression. METHODS: The expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNA was assessed in several brain regions of individuals who had committed suicide and had been diagnosed with major depression relative to that of individuals who had died suddenly as a result of factors other than suicide.

Author(s): 
Poulter, Michael O.
Du, Lisheng
Weaver, Ian C. G.
Palkovits, MiklÛs
Faludi, G·bor
Merali, Zul
Szyf, Moshe
Anisman, Hymie
Publication Title: 
Archives of General Psychiatry

CONTEXT: Although most of the effort to understand the neurobiology of depressive states and suicide has focused on neuronal processes, recent studies suggest that astroglial dysfunction may play an important role. A truncated variant of the tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB.T1) is expressed in astrocytes, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling has been linked to mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that TrkB.T1 expression is downregulated in suicide completers and that this downregulation is mediated by an epigenetic process.

Author(s): 
Ernst, Carl
Deleva, Vesselina
Deng, Xiaoming
Sequeira, Adolfo
Pomarenski, Amanda
Klempan, Tim
Ernst, Neil
Quirion, Rémi
Gratton, Alain
Szyf, Moshe
Turecki, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychiatry

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have suggested deficits in myelination and glial gene expression in different psychiatric disorders. We examined the brain expression and genetic/epigenetic regulation of QKI, an oligodendrocyte-specific RNA binding protein important for cell development and myelination. METHODS: The microarray-based expression of QKI was evaluated in cortical and subcortical brain regions from suicide victims with a diagnosis of major depression (n = 16) and control subjects (n = 13).

Author(s): 
Klempan, Timothy A.
Ernst, Carl
Deleva, Vesselina
LabontÈ, Benoit
Turecki, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
Archives of General Psychiatry

CONTEXT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and BDNF levels are decreased in the brain and plasma of suicide subjects. So far, the mechanisms leading to downregulation of BDNF expression are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that alterations of DNA methylation could be involved in the dysregulation of BDNF gene expression in the brain of suicide subjects. DESIGN: Three independent quantitative methylation techniques were performed on postmortem samples of brain tissue.

Author(s): 
Keller, Simona
Sarchiapone, Marco
Zarrilli, Federica
Videtic, Alja
Ferraro, Angelo
Carli, Vladimir
Sacchetti, Silvana
Lembo, Francesca
Angiolillo, Antonella
Jovanovic, Nikolina
Pisanti, Francesco
Tomaiuolo, Rossella
Monticelli, Antonella
Balazic, Joze
Roy, Alec
Marusic, Andrej
Cocozza, Sergio
Fusco, Alfredo
Bruni, Carmelo B.
Castaldo, Giuseppe
Chiariotti, Lorenzo
Publication Title: 
European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists

Alterations in a number of neurobiological systems have been associated with suicidal behavior including the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Altered functioning of these systems may stem from both genetic and developmental causes. Adversity in early-life has developmental consequences on these systems that persist into adulthood. Genetic differences may also contribute to alterations in functioning of neurobiological systems.

Author(s): 
Mann, J. J.
Currier, D. M.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetics comprises heritable but concurrent variable modifications of genomic DNA defining gene expression. The aim of this publication is to review the field of epigenetics in depression. Within this scope, we outline potential therapeutic options evolving in this young field of psychiatric research. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently published papers show that epigenetic mechanisms like histone modifications and DNA methylation affect diverse pathways leading to depression-like behaviors in animal models.

Author(s): 
Schroeder, Marc
Krebs, Marie O.
Bleich, Stefan
Frieling, Helge
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

Suicide behavior (SB) spans a spectrum ranging from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide. Strong evidence suggests a genetic susceptibility to SB, including familial heritability and common occurrence in twins. This review addresses recent molecular genetic studies in SB that include case-control association, genome gene-expression microarray, and genome-wide association (GWA). This work also reviews epigenetics in SB and pharmacogenetic studies of antidepressant-induced suicide.

Author(s): 
Tsai, Shih-Jen
Hong, Chen-Jee
Liou, Ying-Jay

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