Sulfadoxine

Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Eleven Thai isolates and one West African isolate of Plasmodium falciparum were tested for their susceptibility to the Chinese antimalarial drugs artemisinine (qinghaosu) and artemether. The isolates were cultivated by the Trager-Jensen candle-jar technique and exposed to the action of the drugs for 36-48 hours. Artemisinine inhibited growth of most isolates at 10(-7)-10(-8) mol/litre and artemether at 10(-8) mol/litre (with an initial parasitaemia of 0.5-1.0%).

Author(s): 
Thaithong, S.
Beale, G. H.
Publication Title: 
Epidemiology and Infection

To characterize post-treatment clearance of young forms of Plasmodium falciparum from the blood, three differential equation models, a linear decline, a linear then logarithmic decline, and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetic equation, were fitted to log-transformed serial parasite counts from 30 semi-immune patients with synchronous parasitaemias allocated one of six antimalarial drug regimens. The first two equations were solved analytically. The MM equation was solved numerically using a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method.

Author(s): 
Davis, T. M.
Martin, R. B.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, quinidine, halofantrine, artemisinin, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was investigated in Lambarene, Gabon in 1994. The development of in vitro susceptibility has been traced from 1983 or 1992 to 1994 for chloroquine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine. Standard in vitro microtests according to World Health Organization methodology were performed.

Author(s): 
Philipps, J.
Radloff, P. D.
Wernsdorfer, W.
Kremsner, P. G.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

We report here the results of a randomized double blind trial comparing coartemether (CGP56697), a combination of artemether and benflumetol, with pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (P/S). Two hundred eighty-seven children 1-5 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled at two centers in The Gambia between July 1996 and December 1996. Following treatment, children were visited at home every 24 hr until a blood film free of asexual parasites was obtained. Genotyping of parasites was used to distinguish recrudescence from new infections.

Author(s): 
von Seidlein, L.
Bojang, K.
Jones, P.
Jaffar, S.
Pinder, M.
Obaro, S.
Doherty, T.
Haywood, M.
Snounou, G.
Gemperli, B.
Gathmann, I.
Royce, C.
McAdam, K.
Greenwood, B.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

To define the current efficacy of Fansidar (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel Switzerland) (pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine), primaquine in a high dose, and artesunate for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malaria, we conducted a comparative clinical trial of these 3 drugs in an open-label study. Patients (15-65 years old) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments regimens in a serial order. Ninety percent of the patients were infected at Thailand-Myanmar border.

Author(s): 
Wilairatana, P.
Silachamroon, U.
Krudsood, S.
Singhasivanon, P.
Treeprasertsuk, S.
Bussaratid, V.
Phumratanaprapin, W.
Srivilirit, S.
Looareesuwan, S.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ) and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) are the predominantly used antimalarials in Zambia and other parts of East Africa, but increasing resistance of P. falciparum is a major concern. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled. In 43 patients, no prior CQ use could be demonstrated by history and urianalysis (qualitative test, Dill & Glazko) and these patients were given CQ; the other 27 had taken CQ before and received SP.

Author(s): 
Bijl, H. M.
Kager, J.
Koetsier, D. W.
van der Werf, T. S.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

The development of resistance to drugs poses one of the greatest threats to malaria control. In Africa, the efficacy of readily affordable antimalarial drugs is declining rapidly, while highly efficacious drugs tend to be too expensive. Cost-effective strategies are needed to extend the useful life spans of antimalarial drugs. Observations in South-East Asia on combination therapy with artemisinin derivatives and mefloquine indicate that the development of resistance to both components is slowed down.

Author(s): 
Bloland, P. B.
Ettling, M.
Meek, S.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

As part of a study to assess the infectivity of gametocytes after treatment with four antimalarial regimens, the efficacy of each treatment was also determined. From September to December 1998, 598 children with uncomplicated malaria were treated; 135 received chloroquine (CQ) alone, 276 received pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar, PSD) alone, 113 received PSD with a single dose of artesunate (PSD + 1ART) and 74 received PSD combined with three doses of artesunate (PSD + 3ART). On day 28 19/63 (30.2%; 95% C.I. 19.2% to 43.1%) of children treated with CQ alone, 5/134 (3.7%; 95% C.I.

Author(s): 
von Seidlein, L.
Jawara, M.
Coleman, R.
Doherty, T.
Walraven, G.
Targett, G.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Combination therapy that includes artemisinin derivatives cures most falciparum malaria infections. Lowering transmission by reducing gametocyte infectivity would be an additional benefit. To examine the effect of such therapy on transmission, Gambian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with standard regimens of chloroquine or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine alone or in combination with 1 or 3 doses of artesunate. The infectivity to mosquitoes of gametocytes in peripheral blood was determined 4 or 7 days after treatment.

Author(s): 
Targett, G.
Drakeley, C.
Jawara, M.
von Seidlein, L.
Coleman, R.
Deen, J.
Pinder, M.
Doherty, T.
Sutherland, C.
Walraven, G.
Milligan, P.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Combining artesunate with existing antimalarial drugs may improve cure rates, delay emergence of resistance, and reduce transmission. We performed a randomized comparative trial to quantify the effect of adding artesunate to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Indonesia.

Author(s): 
Tjitra, E.
Suprianto, S.
Currie, B. J.
Morris, P. S.
Saunders, J. R.
Anstey, N. M.

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