Although there is evidence to link schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) to genetic and environmental factors, specific individual or groups of genes/factors causative of the disease have been elusive to the research community. An understanding of the molecular aberrations that cause these mental illnesses requires comprehensive approaches that examine both genetic and epigenetic factors.
DNA methylation plays a vital role in normal cellular function, with aberrant methylation signatures being implicated in a growing number of human pathologies and complex human traits. Methods based on the modification of genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite are considered the 'gold-standard' for DNA methylation profiling on genomic DNA; however they require large amounts of DNA and may be prohibitively expensive when used on the large sample sizes necessary to detect small effects.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies in patients with anorexia nervosa suggest that oxytocin may be involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. We examined whether there was evidence of variation in methylation status of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene in patients with anorexia nervosa that might account for these findings. METHODS: We analyzed the methylation status of the CpG sites in a region from the exon 1 to the MT2 regions of the OXTR gene in buccal cells from 15 patients and 36 healthy women using bisulfite sequencing.
Epigenetic modification plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression and therefore in the development of disease states. In particular, genomic methylation of cytosines within CpG dinucleotides is crucial to development, gene silencing, and chromosome inactivation. Importantly, aberrant methylation profiles of various genes are associated with cancer as well as autoimmune disease, psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and heart disease. Various methods are available for the detection and quantification of methylation in a given sample.
The composite human microbiome of Western populations has probably changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk-derived) fat, but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat, changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes the expansion of a low-abundance, sulphite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia.