Superoxides

Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Free radicals react with biological molecules and destroy the structure of cells, which eventually causes free-radical induced disease such as cancer, renal failure, aging, etc. In this study, 6 extracts and 4 pure compounds of Terminalia chebula RETZ. were investigated for anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-superoxide radical formation and free radical scavenging activities. The superoxide radical scavenging of the 4 pure compounds was further evaluated using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. The results showed that all tested extracts and pure compounds of T.

Author(s): 
Cheng, Hua-Yew
Lin, Ta-Chen
Yu, Kuo-Hua
Yang, Chien-Min
Lin, Chun-Ching
Publication Title: 
Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research

Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes.

Author(s): 
D'Souza, P.
Amit, A.
Saxena, V. S.
Bagchi, D.
Bagchi, M.
Stohs, S. J.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

The aqueous extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (T1), Terminalia chebula (T2) and Terminalia belerica (T3) and their equiproportional mixture triphala were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity. gamma-Radiation induced strand break formation in plasmid DNA (pBR322) was effectively inhibited by triphala and its constituents in the concentration range 25-200 microg/mL with a percentage inhibition of T1 (30%-83%), T2 (21%-71%), T3 (8%-58%) and triphala (17%-63%).

Author(s): 
Naik, G. H.
Priyadarsini, K. I.
Bhagirathi, R. G.
Mishra, B.
Mishra, K. P.
Banavalikar, M. M.
Mohan, Hari
Publication Title: 
The Biochemical Journal

The free radical theory of aging proposes that ROS (reactive oxygen species) are major driving forces of aging, and are also critically involved in cellular senescence. Besides the mitochondrial respiratory chain, alternative sources of ROS have been described that might contribute to cellular senescence. Noxs (NADPH oxidases) are well-known sources of superoxide, which contribute to the antimicrobial capabilities of macrophages, a process involving the prototypical member of the family referred to as Nox2.

Author(s): 
Lener, Barbara
Kozie?, Rafa?
Pircher, Haymo
H¸tter, Eveline
Greussing, Ruth
Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar
Hermann, Martin
Unterluggauer, Hermann
Jansen-D¸rr, Pidder
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Previous studies indicated that renal tubular epithelial cells from some long-lived avian species exhibit robust and/or unique protective mechanisms against oxidative stress relative to murine cells.

Author(s): 
Ogburn, C. E.
Carlberg, K.
Ottinger, M. A.
Holmes, D. J.
Martin, G. M.
Austad, S. N.
Publication Title: 
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene

To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of two kinds of Ayurvedic food supplements (Maharishi Amrit Kalash 4 and Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5, M-4 and M-5), superoxide anion (O2-) production of peritoneal macrophages and the response of spleen cells to concanavalin A (Con A) were examined in mice given an aqueous emulsion of M-4 and M-5 p.o. at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg for 10 days. O2- production of peritoneal macrophages in the M-5 (50 mg/kg)-treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group.

Author(s): 
Inaba, R.
Sugiura, H.
Iwata, H.
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a well known drug in Ayurveda system of medicine. In the present study, antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of H. indicus root bark was evaluated in several in vitro and ex vivo models. Further, preliminary phytochemical analysis and TLC fingerprint profile of the extract was established to characterize the extract which showed antioxidant properties. The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant potential of root bark of H. indicus was evaluated in different systems viz.

Author(s): 
Ravishankara, M. N.
Shrivastava, Neeta
Padh, Harish
Rajani, M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine

The effect of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b. wt. of hydroalcoholic extract of geriforte (an Ayurvedic herbal medicine) administered intraperitoneally was studied on the radiation-induced mortality in mice exposed to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation. Treatment of mice with different doses of geriforte consecutively for 5 days before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated controls.

Author(s): 
Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra
Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath
Publication Title: 
Arzneimittel-Forschung

Two drugs composed of several different plant extracts are in use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of asthma and arthritis, respectively. There is increasing evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising from several enzymatic reactions are mediators of inflammatory events such as the above mentioned. Plant extracts have the potential for scavenging such reactive oxygen species, dependent on the individual test system.

Author(s): 
Janisch, Kerstin M.
Milde, Jens
Elstner, Erich F.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

The aqueous extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (T1), Terminalia chebula (T2) and Terminalia belerica (T3) and their equiproportional mixture triphala were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity. gamma-Radiation induced strand break formation in plasmid DNA (pBR322) was effectively inhibited by triphala and its constituents in the concentration range 25-200 microg/mL with a percentage inhibition of T1 (30%-83%), T2 (21%-71%), T3 (8%-58%) and triphala (17%-63%).

Author(s): 
Naik, G. H.
Priyadarsini, K. I.
Bhagirathi, R. G.
Mishra, B.
Mishra, K. P.
Banavalikar, M. M.
Mohan, Hari

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