We conducted a sib pair study in very old subjects for the purpose of mapping longevity loci. In the present analysis, we explore whether our recruitment strategy has resulted in a population enriched for a heritable component for exceptional longevity. Our study includes families with at least two long-living siblings (men aged 89 years or above; women aged 91 years or above). Data were collected on date of birth and, if applicable, date of death of parents, brothers and sisters, offspring, and spouses of the long-living participants.
INTRODUCTION: parental age at conception may affect life expectancy. Adult daughters of older fathers seem to live shorter lives and, in one study, being born to a mother aged <25 was an important predictor of exceptional longevity. The effect of parental age on fitness/frailty in late life is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationships between parental age and frailty and longevity in older adults. METHODS: in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), data was collected on individuals aged >or=65 using a Self-Assessed Risk Factor Questionnaire and screening interview.
While there is evidence that longevity runs in families, the study of long-lived families is complicated by the fact that longevity-related information is available only for the oldest old, many of whom may be deceased and unavailable for testing, and information on other living family members, primarily descendents, is censored. This situation requires a creative approach for analyzing determinants of longevity in families.
OBJECTIVES: To delineate the influences of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on human mortality and age-related morbid conditions, principally the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, excess body weight, cancer, poor bone mineralization and rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative disorders. METHOD: Citations were selected from a PubMed search according to their clinical and experimental relevance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who adhere to the principles of the traditional MD tend to have a longer life-span.
Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
PURPOSE: Psychological responses to cancer are widely believed to affect survival. We investigated associations between hope, optimism, anxiety, depression, health utility and survival in patients starting first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-nine subjects with metastatic colorectal cancer in a randomised controlled trial of chemotherapy completed baseline questionnaires assessing the following: hopefulness, optimism, anxiety and depression and health utility.
Viktor Frankl has written that people can survive in the most adverse of situations. He emphasized that the will to meaning has actual survival value. Frankl said people who were oriented toward the future or who had loved ones to see again were most likely to have survived the Holocaust. But is this belief valid? Does love have survival value? Six survivors of the Holocaust were interviewed to assess whether they experienced thoughts and feelings as those described by Frankl. Analysis of results from these interviews showed that love was important but so were other factors.
In this paper, the author explores the difficulties in developing the capacity to fall and remain in love, as shown in a case study of a Holocaust survivor's daughter whose mother lived through the Holocaust as a child. These difficulties arose from the inability of the daughter to go through the mourning processes necessary for the separation from her bereaved mother, as well as from the daughter's fixation on the mother's interminable, unresolved mourning. The daughter exploited her relationships with the love objects in her life to play the role of the victim/persecutor.
Three studies examined the terror management function of romantic commitment. In Study 1 (N = 94), making mortality salient led to higher reports of romantic commitment on the Dimensions of Commitment Inventory (J. M. Adams & W. H. Jones, 1997) than control conditions. In Study 2 (N = 60), the contextual salience of thoughts about romantic commitment reduced the effects of mortality salience on judgments of social transgressions.
Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
We use an inclusive fitness model to study the evolution of altruism in a patch-structured population in which there is positive probability of breeder survival from one generation to the next. We find first that breeder survival promotes altruism and second that there is a marked difference between benefits of fecundity and benefits of survival. Under the first altruism is more strongly favored, and under the second altruism is less strongly favored than in a randomly mixing population.