Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the autism phenotype, or confounding by parity; and (3) is consistent across epidemiological studies. Multiple study methods were adopted.
IMPORTANCE: Advancing paternal age has been linked to autism. OBJECTIVE: To further expand knowledge about the association between paternal age and autism by studying the effect of grandfathers' age on childhood autism. DESIGN: Population-based, multigenerational, case-control study. SETTING: Nationwide multigeneration and patient registers in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a study of individuals born in Sweden since 1932. Parental age at birth was obtained for more than 90% of the cohort.
IMPORTANCE: Epigenetic studies present unique opportunities to advance schizophrenia research because they can potentially account for many of its clinical features and suggest novel strategies to improve disease management. OBJECTIVE: To identify schizophrenia DNA methylation biomarkers in blood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 759 schizophrenia cases and 738 controls (N?=?1497) collected in Sweden. We used methyl-CpG-binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing of the methylated genomic fraction, followed by next-generation DNA sequencing.
A new four-item version of the widely used Reiss Premarital Sexual Permissiveness (PSP) Scale is described and analyzed. The purpose of our research was to see if this much quicker to answer format will equal the high scaling attributes of the earlier and longer versions. Samples of students from the United States (N = 217) and Sweden (N = 186) were administered the short form. The analysis and data are presented and compared with the results of the original, longer versions of the scale. Results indicated that the four-item version met all Guttman scale requirements.
Focal theory, in trying to explain why the majority of young people cope comparatively well with the variety of transitional tasks they are confronted with during adolescence, suggests that adolescents deal with only one issue at a time: concerns about heterosexual relationships peak around 11, concerns about peer acceptance around 15, and about relationship to and independence from parents at 15 for girls and 17 for boys. However, the model has been criticized for not taking into account economic problems and unemployment.
A chronic disorder affects all members of the family in various ways. The aim of this study is to elucidate the next of kin's (N= 36) experiences when an adult family member has muscular dystrophy. The relationships were partner (36%, n= 14), parent (18%, n= 7), child (21%, n= 8), sibling (15%, n= 6), and other relative (3%, n= 1). Latent content analysis is employed and involves an interpretation of the interviewtext.
The aim of this study was to illuminate the way of being a family when one family member is in the midst of living and dying. A family systems frame and a life world perspective were used in interviews with five families. A qualitative analysis inspired by Giorgi revealed dialectic and dynamic processes in constant motion within and between the continua being in affinity-being in loneliness, being in power-being in helplessness, and being in continuity-being in disruption.
Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
The aim of this study was to describe and analyze first-time parents' experiences of factors that affect the quality of their intimate relationship and the way they cope with their situation six months after delivery. The method used was inductive qualitative content analysis of two open questions in a larger questionnaire. The data is based on 535 respondents' statements. The factors affecting the quality of the intimate relationship were available or missing and could be classified into four categories. 1.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long-lasting consequences not only for the individual with the injury but also for family members. The aim of this study is to elucidate the meaning of family members' experiences of living with an individual with moderate or severe TBI. The data have been collected by means of qualitative research interviews with 8 family member participants. A phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation (Ricouer, 1976) of the data reveal that family members struggle with their own suffering while showing compassion for the injured person.
There is a widespread concern in Western society about the visibility of pornography in public places and on the Internet. What are the consequences for young men and women, and how do they think about gender, sexuality, and pornography? Data was collected, through 22 individual interviews and seven focus groups, from 51 participants (36 women and 37 men aged 14-20 years) in Sweden. The results indicated a process of both normalization and ambivalence. Pornography was used as a form of social intercourse, a source of information, and a stimulus for sexual arousal.