Sweetening Agents

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

AIM: Many weapons are available in the arsenal of a dental professional to combat dental caries, which is almost ubiquitously present. From a public health perspective, most of these weapons are far from being an ideal drug. Hence, there is a demand for better and effective antibacterial agents. This factor stimulated the process of the present study. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula on Streptococcus mutans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula were procured and powdered.

Author(s): 
Nayak, Sushma S.
Ankola, Anil V.
Metgud, Sharda C.
Bolmal, Uday Kumar
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neuroscience Research

It is widely accepted that the GABAergic system plays an important role in the action of ethanol in vivo. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites in the CNS and regulates GABAergic transmissions. In this study, mice lacking the GAT1 were developed by homologous recombination. Both hetero- and homozygous GAT1 mutant mice were tested for ethanol, saccharin or quinine consumption, ethanol-conditioned place preference, ethanol-conditioned taste aversion, ethanol-simulated motor activity, and ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis.

Author(s): 
Cai, You-Qing
Cai, Guo-Qiang
Liu, Guo-Xiang
Cai, Qing
Shi, Jia-Hao
Shi, Jun
Ma, Sun-Kai
Sun, Xia
Sheng, Zhe-Jin
Mei, Zhen-Tong
Cui, Dafu
Guo, Lihe
Wang, Zhugang
Fei, Jian
Publication Title: 
Yakushigaku Zasshi. The Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy

We studied the descriptions of saccharated preparations found in traditional medical books and reported the following points. 1. Among the preparations described in medical books in Uigurian traditional medicine, the most numerous are saccharated preparations. These are often used to ripen and detoxicate malignant body fluids. 2. The contents of ancient writings found in Turfan in Uiguru relate not only to Greek medicine but also to Ayurvedic and Tibetan medicine. The application of saccharated preparations described in these writings is similar to that mentioned above. 3.

Author(s): 
Nakamura, T.
Endo, J.
Sakim, M.
Publication Title: 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

We have initiated studies to evaluate the suitability of performing therapeutic conditioning trials in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice treated with alpha lipoic acid (ALA). EAE was induced in SJL mice by active immunization with myelin antigen. Once daily subcutaneous injection of ALA served as the unconditional stimulus (US) administered with the conditional stimulus (CS) saccharin-flavored drinking water under a regimen of restricted water access.

Author(s): 
Jones, Richard E.
Moes, Nicole
Zwickey, Heather
Cunningham, Christopher L.
Gregory, William L.
Oken, Barry
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Lipidology

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Based on interim results from an ongoing study, we have reported that consumption of a high-fructose diet, but not a high-glucose diet, promotes the development of three of the pathological characteristics associated with metabolic syndrome: visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. From these results and a review of the current literature, we present two potential sequences of events by which fructose consumption may contribute to metabolic syndrome.

Author(s): 
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Our laboratory has investigated 2 hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) the endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-h plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans than does consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages.

Author(s): 
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Appetite

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels.

Author(s): 
Anton, Stephen D.
Martin, Corby K.
Han, Hongmei
Coulon, Sandra
Cefalu, William T.
Geiselman, Paula
Williamson, Donald A.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The results of short-term studies in humans suggest that, compared with glucose, acute consumption of fructose leads to increased postprandial energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation and decreased postprandial fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of increased fructose consumption compared with isocaloric glucose consumption on substrate utilization and energy expenditure following sustained consumption and under energy-balanced conditions.

Author(s): 
Cox, C. L.
Stanhope, K. L.
Schwarz, J. M.
Graham, J. L.
Hatcher, B.
Griffen, S. C.
Bremer, A. A.
Berglund, L.
McGahan, J. P.
Havel, P. J.
Keim, N. L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

CONTEXT: Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on circulating levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the effects of 10 wk of dietary fructose or glucose consumption on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, and IL-6.

Author(s): 
Cox, Chad L.
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Schwarz, Jean Marc
Graham, James L.
Hatcher, Bonnie
Griffen, Steven C.
Bremer, Andrew A.
Berglund, Lars
McGahan, John P.
Keim, Nancy L.
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Neurogastroenterology and Motility: The Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

BACKGROUND: Ingestion of sweet food is driven by central reward circuits and restrained by endocrine and neurocrine satiety signals. The specific influence of sucrose intake on central affective and reward circuitry and alterations of these mechanisms in the obese are incompletely understood. For this, we hypothesized that (i) similar brain regions are engaged by the stimulation of sweet taste receptors by sucrose and by non-nutrient sweeteners and (ii) during visual food-related cues, obese subjects show greater brain responses to sucrose compared with lean controls.

Author(s): 
Connolly, L.
Coveleskie, K.
Kilpatrick, L. A.
Labus, J. S.
Ebrat, B.
Stains, J.
Jiang, Z.
Tillisch, K.
Raybould, H. E.
Mayer, E. A.

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