Swimming

Publication Title: 
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented.

Author(s): 
Birrer, D.
Morgan, G.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed.

Author(s): 
Kuhla, Angela
Lange, Sophie
Holzmann, Carsten
Maass, Fabian
Petersen, Jana
Vollmar, Brigitte
Wree, Andreas
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

In order to evaluate the effects produced by the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Casimiroa edulis on the central nervous system, different behavioral tests and animal models of depression and anxiety were performed. The extract was administered intraperitoneally in male and female rats and tested on spontaneous motor activity, locomotor activity, exploration of an elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST).

Author(s): 
Mora, S.
Diaz-Veliz, G.
Lungenstrass, H.
García-González, M.
Coto-Morales, T.
Poletti, C.
De Lima, T. C. M.
Herrera-Ruiz, M.
Tortoriello, J.
Publication Title: 
European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

The ?-phenylethylamines are known to act as ligands for the trace amine receptors, a novel family of G-protein-coupled receptors. The trace amines are stored and released along with various neurotransmitter agents such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine and thus work as neuromodulator or neurotransmitter agents. Trace amines are known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depression.

Author(s): 
Dhir, Ashish
Malik, Sneh
Kessar, S. V.
Singh, K. N.
Kulkarni, S. K.
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. METHODS: Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered.

Author(s): 
Vanzella, Cláudia
Bianchetti, Paula
Sbaraini, Sabrina
Vanzin, Samanta Inês
Melecchi, Maria Inês Soares
Caramão, Elina Bastos
Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues
Publication Title: 
Pharmaceutical Biology

CONTEXT: The genus Urtica has been known since ancient times. It has known to be useful for the treatment of different human ailments. OBJECTIVE: The present work evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica circularis (Hicken) Sorarú (Urticaceae). materials and method: The effect on central nervous system of U.

Author(s): 
Anzoise, María Laura
Marrassini, Carla
Ferraro, Graciela
Gorzalczany, Susana
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Pharmacological and metabolic effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. (Solanaceae)) used in Ayurveda as a herbal tonic and health food were studied. Ashwagandha was shown to increase swimming time in rats in physical working capacity test, i.e. rats swimming endurance test. Significant increase in relative heart weight and glycogen content in myocardium and liver was also observed in ashwagandha treated group. Ashwagandha treatment increased the duration of contractility in functional test for the resistance of frog heart muscle towards the toxic action of strophanthin-K.

Author(s): 
Dhuley, J. N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Pharmacological and metabolic effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. (Solanaceae)) used in Ayurveda as a herbal tonic and health food were studied. Ashwagandha was shown to increase swimming time in rats in physical working capacity test, i.e. rats swimming endurance test. Significant increase in relative heart weight and glycogen content in myocardium and liver was also observed in ashwagandha treated group. Ashwagandha treatment increased the duration of contractility in functional test for the resistance of frog heart muscle towards the toxic action of strophanthin-K.

Author(s): 
Dhuley, J. N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Benincasa hispida (B. hispida) is recommended in Ayurveda for the management of peptic ulcers. Therefore, anti-ulcerogenic activity of different extracts of B. hispida (fresh juice, supernatant and residue fraction of centrifuged juice, alcoholic and petroleum ether extract) were studied in aspirin plus restraint, swimming stress, indomethacin plus histamine and serotonin-induced ulcers in rats and mice. The oral feeding of different doses of the extract significantly reduced the ulcer index produced by various ulcerogens.

Author(s): 
Grover, J. K.
Adiga, G.
Vats, V.
Rathi, S. S.
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

Bacopa monniera Wettst. (syn. Herpestis monniera L.; Scrophulariaceae) is a commonly used Ayurvedic drug for mental disorders. The standardized extract was reported earlier to have significant anti-oxidant effect, anxiolytic activity and improve memory retention in Alzheimer's disease. Presently, the standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera (bacoside A - 38.0+/-0.9) was investigated for potential antidepressant activity in rodent models of depression. The effect was compared with the standard antidepressant drug imipramine (15 mg/kg, ip).

Author(s): 
Sairam, K.
Dorababu, M.
Goel, R. K.
Bhattacharya, S. K.

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