Switzerland

Publication Title: 
Swiss Medical Weekly

The World Health Organization (WHO) assigns high priority to the prevention of non-communicable age-related diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, stroke and chronic lower respiratory diseases. They are now the leading causes of death, in both industrialised and developing countries, mostly due to increased life expectancy and urbanisation with associated changes in lifestyle and environment. Tobacco smoking, physical inactivity and resulting obesity are established risk factors for many chronic diseases.

Author(s): 
Probst-Hensch, N. M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Recent evidence suggests that altered expression and epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) are related to the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unknown. Because glucocorticoid receptor signaling is known to regulate emotional memory processes, particularly in men, epigenetic modifications of NR3C1 might affect the strength of traumatic memories.

Author(s): 
Vukojevic, Vanja
Kolassa, Iris-T.
Fastenrath, Matthias
Gschwind, Leo
Spalek, Klara
Milnik, Annette
Heck, Angela
Vogler, Christian
Wilker, Sarah
Demougin, Philippe
Peter, Fabian
Atucha, Erika
Stetak, Attila
Roozendaal, Benno
Elbert, Thomas
Papassotiropoulos, Andreas
de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.
Publication Title: 
Journal International De Bioethique = International Journal of Bioethics

While medicine has made remarkable progress over the last decades, its development has also raised numerous ethical and legal issues. In this context, the question arises as to what framework is needed for research, organ transplants, and medically assisted reproduction. A balance has to be found between scientific freedom, the imperatives of public health and the protection of people ' welfare, rights and human dignity. Those questions have led to the adoption of multiple national laws as well as ethical and legal norms at the international level.

Author(s): 
Sprumont, Dominique
Roduit, Guillaume
Hertig Pea, AgnËs
Publication Title: 
Journal of Religion and Health

Identifying patients' expectations of and need for healthcare chaplaincy is important in terms of appropriate intervention. Therefore, a sample of 612 patients from 32 general hospitals and psychiatric clinics in the German part of Switzerland was surveyed about their expectations of chaplaincy service. A principal component factor analysis of participants' ratings found that the survey items fell into three distinct categories. These were the need for (1) emotional support, (2) help to cope with illness/disease, and (3) religious/spiritual assistance.

Author(s): 
Winter-Pf‰ndler, Urs
Flannelly, Kevin J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Family History

Analysis of criminal proceedings and death records for early modern Geneva reveals an explosion in suicides after 1750. New attitudes toward courtship, marriage, and the familly contributed to this dramatic increase, as unprecedented numbers of people took their lives because of family concerns, such as marital breakdown, unhapppy love stories, and deaths of family members. Greater interest in the companionate marriage was central to these changes.

Author(s): 
Watt, J. R.
Publication Title: 
Child Abuse & Neglect

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the long-term consequences of "soft" perpetrator strategies. The purpose of the present study is to assess the consequences of love-bargaining strategies compared to those involving force. METHOD: A representative sample of 980 women, aged 20 to 40 years, in the German-speaking part of Switzerland was asked questions regarding psychosomatic well-being, sexual actions, and perpetrator strategies, as well as motivations for tolerating long periods of abuse. The answers regarding strategies were factor analyzed.

Author(s): 
Niederberger, Josef Martin
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Gay men are at higher risk of suicidality. This paper describes the causes of suicide attempts as perceived by the men themselves and analyzes their impact on severity and recidivism. Mental health surveys conducted among gay men in Geneva, Switzerland, from two probability-based time-space samples in 2007 and 2011, were merged to yield a combined sample N = 762.

Author(s): 
Wang, Jen
Plˆderl, Martin
H‰usermann, Michael
Weiss, Mitchell G.
Publication Title: 
Gesnerus

In the canton of Vaud (Switzerland), hospitals were originally created within a local philanthropic framework which aimed as much at healing as at controlling the working classes. The practice of medicine was still not very effective, and the generosity of a few well-known people was enough at that time to ensure the viability of small infirmaries, run by deaconesses with just one or two doctors working part-time.

Author(s): 
DonzÈ, Pierre-Yves
Publication Title: 
Isis; an International Review Devoted to the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences

Historians of science have long believed that Abraham Trembley's celebrity and impact were attributable chiefly to the incredible regenerative phenomena demonstrated by the polyp, which he discovered in 1744, and to the new experimental method he devised to investigate them. This essay shows that experimental method alone cannot account for Trembley's success and influence; nor are the marvels of the polyp sufficient to explain its scientific and cultural impact.

Author(s): 
Ratcliff, Marc J.
Publication Title: 
La Medicina Del Lavoro

Similarly to Daniele Pometta (1869-1949) on the northern front, Giuseppe Volante (1870-1936) from Turin, a valid clinician and hygiene expert was the field doctor for the firm of Brandt, Brandau e C., on the southern part of the Simplon tunnel for the whole period of its excavation (1898-1906). He meticulously organised and carried out with determination the main mission entrusted him which was to prevent the hookworm epidemic which a mere twenty years earlier had cast its shadow over the St. Gotthard tunnel.

Author(s): 
Volante, G.

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