Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. A growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health via down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The purpose of this article is to provide a scholarly review of the literature regarding research studies comparing the effects of yoga and exercise on a variety of health outcomes and health conditions.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Suicide behavior (SB) spans a spectrum ranging from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide. Strong evidence suggests a genetic susceptibility to SB, including familial heritability and common occurrence in twins. This review addresses recent molecular genetic studies in SB that include case-control association, genome gene-expression microarray, and genome-wide association (GWA). This work also reviews epigenetics in SB and pharmacogenetic studies of antidepressant-induced suicide.
Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state.
The links among mothers' compassionate love for their child, autonomic nervous system activity, and parenting behavior during less and more challenging mother-child interactions were examined. Mothers expressed and reported less negative affect when they exhibited autonomic patterns of increased parasympathetic dominance (high parasympathetic and low sympathetic activation) or autonomic coactivation (high parasympathetic and high sympathetic activation) during the less challenging interaction and autonomic coactivation during the more challenging interaction.
Recent evidence suggests that positive psychologic factors may be protective against coronary artery disease (CAD). We consider this possibility through a paradigm that explores three interrelated factors that may promote healthy psychologic functioning: vitality, emotional flexibility, and coping flexibility. Vitality is a positive and restorative emotional state that is associated with a sense of enthusiasm and energy. Flexibility is related both to the ability to regulate emotions effectively and cope effectively with challenging daily experiences.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Spectral analysis of beat-to-beat variability in electrocardiography is a simple, noninvasive method to analyze sympatho-vagal interaction. The electrocardiogram is analyzed by means of an automatic, autoregressive modeling algorithm that provides a quantitative estimate of R-R interval variability by the computation of power spectral density. Two major peaks are recognizable in this specter: a low-frequency peak (LF, -0.1 Hz), related to the overall autonomic activity (ortho+parasympathetic) and a high-frequency peak (HF, -0.25 Hz), representative of the vagal activity.
Autonomic and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to aversive stimuli presented by means of hypnotic suggestion have been studied in man.Healthy volunteers with simple phobia were screened for susceptibility to hypnosis. The experimental paradigm included periods of rest during which the hypnotized subjects were asked to produce an emotionally neutral mental image and periods of emotional activation in which they were asked to image a phobic object.
Forty-six patients were randomized to receive drug (group 1) or hypnotic sedation (group 2) during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Intracoronary and standard electrocardiograms were continuously registered, and heart rate spectral variability was studied. Normalized units of low- and high-frequency components and the ratio of low to high frequency were measured during balloon inflations.
BACKGROUND: Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during anesthesia likely result from the interaction of hypnosis, surgical stimulation, analgesia and direct cardiovascular effects of drugs, but the interaction between these variables is unclear. This study was designed to characterize the impact of both surgical nociception and analgesia on HRV in propofol-anesthetized patients.