Synaptic Transmission

Publication Title: 
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: The Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology

Acupuncture has been reported to be beneficial in treating cognitive impairment in various pathological conditions. This review describes the effort to understand the signaling pathways that underlie the acupunctural therapeutic effect on cognitive function. We searched the literature in 12 electronic databases from their inception to November 2013, with full text available and language limited to English. Twenty-three studies were identified under the selection criteria. All recruited animal studies demonstrate a significant positive effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment.

Author(s): 
Leung, Mason Chin Pang
Yip, Ka Keung
Ho, Yuen Shan
Siu, Flora Ka Wai
Li, Wai Chin
Garner, Belinda
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Genetics

The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent organism for the study of the genetic and molecular basis of metazoan development. Drosophila provides numerous tools and reagents to unravel the molecular and cellular functions of genes that cause human disease, and the past decade has witnessed a significant expansion of the study of neurodegenerative disease mechanisms in flies. Here we review the interplay between oxidative stress and neuronal toxicity.

Author(s): 
Jaiswal, M.
Sandoval, H.
Zhang, K.
Bayat, V.
Bellen, H. J.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Development

It is commonly known that mental activity helps to maintain a healthy brain. Recent research has unraveled the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain why an active brain lives longer. These mechanisms involve the activation of a comprehensive transcriptional program that is triggered by enhanced synaptic activity and renders neurons resistant to harmful conditions. Functionally, this state of acquired neuroprotection may be achieved mainly via one mechanism, which is the stabilization of mitochondria.

Author(s): 
Bas-Orth, Carlos
Bading, Hilmar
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Multiple system atrophy is a neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal ?-synuclein (?-syn) accumulation in oligodendrocytes and neurons. We previously demonstrated that transgenic (Tg) mice that selectively overexpressed human ?-syn in oligodendrocytes exhibited neuronal ?-syn accumulation. Microtubule ?-III tubulin binds to endogenous neuronal ?-syn to form an insoluble complex, leading to progressive neuronal degeneration. ?-Syn accumulation is increased in the presynaptic terminals of Tg mice neurons and may reduce neurotransmitter release.

Author(s): 
Ito, Hiroshi
Nakayama, Kimiko
Jin, Chenghua
Suzuki, Yasuyo
Yazawa, Ikuru
Publication Title: 
InvestigaciÛn ClÌnica

Wilson disease is a hereditary disorder caused by mutations of the ATP7B gene, which leads to intoxication with copper as a result of an unbalance of copper homeostasis. The clinical manifestations resulting from this intoxication are related to the affectation of liver and the encephalon in most cases. Several animal models are currently available for the study of the malady. However, in such models no neurological symptoms are observed, which limits their use for the study of pathogenic effects of this disease on the central nervous system.

Author(s): 
Arcaya, JosÈ Luis
Tejeda, Carlos Mario
Salazar, Ubalguis
Silva, Ernesto JosÈ
Urdaneta, Karla
Varela, Krystal
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: The authors present a model of the developmental psychopathology and neurobiology of Tourette's syndrome that provides a framework for ongoing research and treatment. METHOD: The model is based on clinical experience and a selective review of relevant scientific literature. RESULTS: During the past decade, Tourette's syndrome and related conditions have emerged as model disorders to study the interplay of genetic, neurobiological, psychological, and environmental factors during development.

Author(s): 
Cohen, D. J.
Leckman, J. F.
Publication Title: 
Perspectives on Developmental Neurobiology

Cerebellar granule cells isolated from postnatal day 7 rat pups are ideal for studying epigenetic events associated with the regulation of neuronal gene expression. These cultures contain from 90 to 95% glutamatergic granule cells and express mRNAs encoding a variety of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors as well as virtually all of the GABAA-receptor subunit mRNAs to different extents. A unique feature of this culture system is that the neurons undergo time-dependent maturation changes in vitro that mimic many of the characteristics of these receptors occurring in vivo.

Author(s): 
Grayson, D. R.
Zhu, W.
Harris, B. T.
Vicini, S.
Zheng, T.
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychiatry

Subtle alterations in synaptic function contribute to the pathophysiology associated with several neuropsychiatric diseases. Modifications in synaptic vesicle trafficking can cause frequency-dependent changes in neurotransmission, alter information coding in neural circuits, and affect long-term plasticity.

Author(s): 
Monteggia, Lisa M.
Kavalali, Ege T.
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Disorders in verbal and emotional communication and imitation, social reciprocity and higher order cognition observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are presented here as phenotypic expressions of temporo-spatial processing disorders (TSPDs). TSPDs include various degrees of disability in (i) processing multi-sensory dynamic stimuli online, (ii) associating them into meaningful and coherent patterns and (iii) producing real-time sensory-motor adjustments and motor outputs.

Author(s): 
Gepner, Bruno
FÈron, FranÁois
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) ProzacÆ (fluoxetine) is widely prescribed for the treatment of depression and anxiety-related disorders. While extensive research has established that fluoxetine is safe for adults, safety is not guaranteed for (unborn) children and adolescents. Some clinical studies have reported adverse outcomes, such as premature birth, neonatal cardiovascular abnormalities, and pulmonary hypertension in children whose mothers used SSRIs during pregnancy.

Author(s): 
Olivier, J. D. A.
Blom, T.
Arentsen, T.
Homberg, J. R.

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