Gallic acid (GA) and chebulagic acid (CA) were isolated from the extract of a herbal medicine, kashi (myrobalans: the fruit of Terminalia chebula) as active principles that blocked the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cytotoxicity. GA and CA inhibited the killing activity of CD8+ CTL clone at IC50 values of 30 microM and 50 microM, respectively. Granule exocytosis in response to anti-CD3 stimulation was also blocked by GA and CA at the equivalent concentrations.
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key cytokine for the generation and stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs), and it may also play a pivotal role in promoting the survival of DCs. In this study, the feasibility of creating a cancer vaccine using DCs adenovirally transduced with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene and the GM-CSF gene was examined. In addition, the effect of the co-transduction of GM-CSF gene on the lifespan of these genetically modified DCs was determined.
Overexpression of Bcl-2 contributes to resistance of cancer cells to human cytotoxic lymphocytes (CL) by blocking granzyme B (GraB)-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Drugs that neutralise Bcl-2 (e.g., ABT-737) may therefore be effective adjuvants for immunotherapeutic strategies that use CL to kill cancer cells. Consistent with this we found that ABT-737 effectively restored MOMP in Bcl-2 overexpressing cells treated with GraB or natural killer cells.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The increased levels of extracellular adenosine in inflamed tissues down-regulate activated immune cells via the A(2A) adenosine receptor. This A(2A) adenosine receptor-mediated immunosuppression is a disqualifying obstacle in cancer immunotherapy as it protects cancerous tissues from adoptively transferred anti-tumour T cells. The aim of this study was to test whether the negative selection of T cells will produce T cells that are resistant to inhibition by extracellular adenosine.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) have gained increasing interest for their use as vaccines due to their repetitive antigenic structure that is capable of efficiently activating the immune system. The efficacy of VLP immunization may lie in its ability to traffic into draining lymph nodes while activating antigen-presenting cells to initiate the orchestration of signals required for the development of a robust immune response. Currently, there is no comprehensive study showing the correlation of different VLP vaccination routes to immune outcome.
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has been shown to play a major role in tumor immune escape by inducing apoptosis of effector leukocytes and correlating with tumor aggressiveness and disease progression. Thus, targeting the Gal-1/Gal-1 ligand axis represents a promising cancer therapeutic approach.
Cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are major players of anti-tumor immune responses, as their functional activity can limit tumor growth and progression. Data show that cytotoxic T cells efficiently control the proliferation of tumor cells through major histocompatibility complex class I-mediated mechanisms; nevertheless, the presence of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in lesional tissue does not always correlate with better prognosis and increased survival of cancer patients.
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research: The Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
γδ T cells are innate lymphocytes that recognize and kill a range of tumor cells and are currently being explored as a target for tumor immunotherapy. However, γδ T cells play a complex role in cancer and can promote, as well as inhibit, tumor growth. In addition to tumor cell killing, γδ T cells express a number of cytokines and other soluble factors in response to tumors. Soluble factors expressed by γδ T cells in these settings include interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, IL-17, and a number of growth factors.
Thirty-three metastatic melanoma patients were vaccinated according to a phase I-II study with an allogeneic melanoma cell line that was genetically modified by transfection with a plasmid containing the gene encoding human interleukin 2 (IL-2). The cell line expresses the major melanoma-associated antigens and the HLA class I alleles HLA-A1, -A2, -B8, and Cw7. All patients shared one or more HLA class I alleles with this cell line vaccine.
After vaccination of melanoma patients with MAGE antigens, we observed that even in the few patients showing tumor regression, the frequency of anti-vaccine T cells in the blood was often either undetectable or <10(-5) of CD8 T cells. This frequency being arguably too low for these cells to be sole effectors of rejection, we reexamined the contribution of T cells recognizing other tumor antigens. The presence of such antitumor T cells in melanoma patients has been widely reported.