MicroRNAs are short, 19-24 nucleotide long, RNA molecules capable of regulating the longevity and, to a lesser extent, translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) species. The function of the microRNA network, and indeed, even that of individual microRNA species, can have profoundly different roles in even a single cell type as the microRNA/mRNA composition evolves. As the role of microRNA within T cells has come under increasing scrutiny, several distinct checkpoints have been demonstrated to have a particular reliance on microRNA regulation.
Immunodeficient mice bearing targeted mutations in the IL2rg gene and engrafted with human immune systems are effective tools for the study of human haematopoiesis, immunity, infectious disease and transplantation biology. The most robust human immune model is generated by implantation of human fetal thymic and liver tissues in irradiated recipients followed by intravenous injection of autologous fetal liver haematopoietic stem cells [often referred to as the BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) model].
Naturally occurring T regulatory cells targeting epitopes derived from various heat shock proteins escape thymic negative selection and can be activated by vaccination with heat shock proteins; hence, vaccination with such proteins has exerted favorable effects on rodent models of autoimmune disorders.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are amongst the most widely studied cells in a variety of immune-mediated conditions, including transplantation and Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD), cancer and autoimmunity; indeed, there is great interest in the tolerogenic potential of Treg-based therapy. Consequently, the need to establish the mechanisms that determine Treg survival and longevity, in addition to developing new tools to monitor these parameters, is paramount.
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potentially prognostic indicators in patients with glioblastoma. If differences in frequency of Tregs in tumor or blood account for substantial variation in patient survival, then reliably measuring Tregs may enhance treatment selection and improve outcomes. METHODS: We measured Tregs and CD3+ T cells in tumors and blood from 25 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
This study tested the effects of hypnosis on the immune response. High and low hypnotizable Ss were exposed to hypnosis, relaxation or control conditions. Blood samples obtained before treatment and twice thereafter were subjected to flow cytometry analysis. Significant alteration of the immune response as measured by B-cells and helper T-cells was shown only for highly hypnotizable Ss exposed to hypnosis.
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is an important derivative of the herb medicine Artemisia annua L., used in ancient China. DHA is currently used worldwide to treat malaria by killing malaria-causing parasites. In addition to this prominent effect, DHA is thought to regulate cellular functions, such as angiogenesis, tumor cell growth, and immunity. Nonetheless, how DHA affects T cell function remains poorly understood. We found that DHA potently suppressed Th cell differentiation in vitro.
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Recent studies have indicated the profound anti-tumor activity of artemisinin's compounds, among which; arteether is an oil-soluble derivative of artemisinin with an endoperoxide bridge that can induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in the normal cells. An experiment was carried out on tumor-bearing Balb/c mice to estimate the effects of Arteether on tumor growth and antitumor immune responses. Briefly, 6mg/kg/day of Arteether and diluents were administered to two groups of mice. Tumor sizes were measured using digital verniercallipers.
Recent studies have reported that APC can present particulate exogenous Ag in the context of class I MHC to CD8+ CTL, and our laboratory demonstrated that IL-3 could enhance CTL generation to exogenous Ag. In this paper, we wished to determine whether presentation of particulate Ag could be enhanced by IL-3. A T cell hybridoma, B3Z86/90.14 (B3Z) restricted to Ova/Kb, was used as an indicator for presentation of particulate Ag with class I MHC. When activated, this hybridoma expresses lacZ, allowing a simple colorimetric measurement of Ag-specific T cell stimulation.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells specialized to initiate and maintain immunity and tolerance. DCs initiate immune responses in a manner that depends on signals they receive from pathogens, surrounding cells and their products. Most tumors are infiltrated by DCs. Thus, interactions between DCs and dying tumor cells may determine the balance between immunity and tolerance to tumor cells. In addition, DCs also display non-immunologic effects on tumors and the tumor microenvironment.