The Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) is a traditional combination suggested as one of the most effective preparations useful for treatment of sciatica. Although traditional preparations can be applied as new therapeutic drugs for investigations and clinical trials, they need to be reformulated to achieve pharmacopoeial standards for modern medicine. In this research, based on seven traditional Persian pharmacopeias for Ergh-al-NassaHab, nine different molded tablets were reformulated. Each formulation comprised the same amount of colchicum, ginger, aloe and yellow myrobalan fruit.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
The pharmaceutical industry has undergone a vast expansion in the 20th and 21st centuries. This article explores the central role now played by pills in clinical practice, but also in the public imagination. First, this article analyzes four properties that, together, account for many of the promises and perils associated with pills: They are ingestible, potent, reproducible, and miniaturized. This allows them to serve as ideal consumer items for widespread distribution and sale and also as model technological "devices" capable of downloading into the body healing chemicals.
BACKGROUND: Pragmatic randomised controlled trials (PRCTs) aim to assess intervention effectiveness by accounting for 'real life' implementation challenges in routine practice. The methodological challenges of PRCT implementation, particularly in primary care, are not well understood. The Kanyini Guidelines Adherence to Polypill study (Kanyini GAP) was a recent primary care PRCT involving multiple private general practices, Indigenous community controlled health services and private community pharmacies.
The recent and widespread appearance of counterfeit antimalarial tablets in South-east Asia prompted the search for simple field assays to identify genuine drugs. In a recently described colorimetric assay for artesunate, Fast red TR salt reacted with an alkali-decomposition product of artesunate to produce a distinct yellow colour. However, that assay is specific for artesunate and it cannot be used to test for artemether.
BACKGROUND: Recently global health advocates have called for the introduction of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies to help curb the impact of drug-resistant malaria in Africa. Retail trade in artemisinin monotherapies could undermine efforts to restrict this class of medicines to more theoretically sound combination treatments. METHODS: This paper describes a systematic search for artemisinin-containing products at a random sample of licensed pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in July 2005.
BACKGROUND: Delivering drugs in a fixed combination is essential to the success of the strategy of artemisinin-based combination therapy. This prevents one drug being taken without the protection of the other, reducing the chance of emergence and spread of drug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. A lower tablet burden should also facilitate adherence to treatment. A new fixed combination of mefloquine plus artesunate has been developed. This was compared with the conventional regimen of separate tablets for the treatment of uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
In southeast Asia, the widespread high prevalence of counterfeits tablets of the vital antimalarial artesunate is of great public health concern. To assess the seriousness of this problem, we quantified the amount of active ingredient present in artesunate tablets by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. This method, in conjunction with analysis of the packaging, classified tablets as genuine, substandard, or fake and validated results of the colorimetric Fast Red TR test.
OBJECTIVES: Artemisinin-derivative drugs are widely used to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria and very few studies have investigated the quality of these medicines in Africa. We analysed the active ingredient contents of artemisinin-derivative drugs marketed in Kenya and DR Congo. METHODS: We analysed tablets, capsules, dry suspensions and injections (IM) containing either artemether (AM), arteether (AE), artesunate (ARS) or dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The content of active ingredients and preservatives was determined quantitatively using validated HPLC-UV methods.
OBJECTIVE: To test a novel methodology to define age-based dosing regimens for the treatment of malaria with a new, user-friendly, blister-packaged fixed-dose combination of artesunate and amodiaquine. METHODS: A weight-for-age reference database of 88 054 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa was compiled using data from Demographic Health Surveys, observational and intervention studies, and standardized for sex, age and malaria risk. We then determined the optimal tablet strength (milligram (mg) per tablet) and age-dose categories for the combination of artesunate and amodiaquine.
OBJECTIVES: Paediatric drug formulations of artemisinin combination therapies and pharmacokinetic data supporting their use in African children are urgently needed for the effective treatment of young children suffering from falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a novel paediatric granule formulation of artesunate-mefloquine therapy were evaluated in comparison to the standard tablet formulation in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in paediatric patients.