Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) consist of three subtypes, each displaying distinctive tissue distribution. In general, the three PPAR subtypes exert overlapping function in transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism. However, each PPAR subtype possesses distinctive functions in different tissues dependent on their expression abundance, endogenous ligands, and the PPAR coregulators in a specific tissue. Transgenesis is an invaluable technique in defining the in vivo function of a particular gene and its protein.
The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue plus an aromatase inhibitor following failure to respond to standard LH-RH analogue plus tamoxifen (TAM) in premenopausal patients. Premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and/or progesterone-receptor positive, advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue plus TAM received goserelin (GOS) in conjunction with anastrozole (ANA). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR).
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: Antiestrogen therapy can cause vasomotor symptoms similar to those occurring during menopause, including hot flashes. Recent studies suggest that acupuncture is effective in reducing vasomotor symptoms in patients with breast cancer receiving tamoxifen. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of acupuncture for treatment of hot flashes in Korean patients with breast cancer receiving antiestrogen therapy. DESIGN: This was a prospective single-arm observational study using before and after measurements.