Sandalwood oil has been found in numerous therapeutic applications in traditional medicines such as Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurveda. However, there are no comparative accounts available in the literature that focused on in vitro and in vivo tree sample-derived extracts. Combined dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained from in vitro samples, that is, callus, somatic embryo and seedlings, and in vivo from leaves of non-oil-yielding young and oil-yielding matured trees.
A tannin fraction (TC-E) from the dried fruit pulp of Terminalia chebula was obtained by successfully extracting with 95% ethyl alcohol and ethyl acetate. TC-E was subjected to silica gel chromatography which yielded four fractions, viz., TC-EI, TC-EII, TC-EIII and TC-EIV. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and 13C-NMR revealed that TC-EI was gallic acid (GA) derivative while the other fractions were tannin in nature.
The bioassay-directed isolation of Terminalia chebula fruits afforded four human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitors, gallic acid ( 1) and three galloyl glucoses ( 2 - 4). In addition, four flavonol glycoside gallates ( 5 - 8) from Euphorbia pekinensis containing the galloyl moiety also showed the inhibitory activity at a level comparable to those of 2 - 4.
A RP-HPLC method for determining fourteen components (gallic acid, chebulic acid, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, punicalagin, 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose, casuarinin, chebulanin, corilagin, neochebulinic acid, terchebulin, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-D-glucose) in the fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. is described. The separation was achieved within 80 min using a binary gradient with mobile phases consisting of a pH 2.7 phosphoric acid solution and an 80% CH3CN solution.
Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrate yielding tannase and gallic acid was carried out using a co-culture of the filamentous fungi, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). Powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and powdered pod cover of Caesalpinia digyna was used in the process and the different process parameters for maximum production of tannase and gallic acid by co-culture method were optimized through media engineering. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity.
Twenty-eight commercial samples of Fructus Chebulae were collected from local herbal markets in Taiwan and were determined to have been derived from Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia chebula Retz. var. parviflora Thwaites, which differ markedly in external appearance. Ten tannin-related constituents [gallic acid (1), chebulic acid (2), punicalagin (4), chebulanin (7), corilagin (8), neochebulinic acid (9), ellagic acid (11), chebulagic acid (12), chebulinic acid (13) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (14)] were identified and quantified by HPLC. Samples derived from T.
Medicinal Chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates))
Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.
BACKGROUND: Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT) of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. METHODS: The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro.
Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products.
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is well-recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen, however, due to their intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics, treatment options are limited. Synergistic effects between antibiotics and medicinal plants, particularly their active components, have intensively been studied as alternative approaches. METHODS: Fifty-one ethanol extracts obtained from 44 different selected medicinal plant species were tested for resistance modifying agents (RMAs) of novobiocin against A. baumannii using growth inhibition assay.