OBJECTIVE: To assess prescribing practice of Primary Health Care (PHC) workers in church owned health care facilities using WHO drug use indicators. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study in which twenty primary health care facilities were randomly selected. Prescribing indicators were obtained by analysing outpatient records retrospectively for the past 14 months between January 1997 and February 1998. This period was chosen because of compete records of outpatient attendances. Patient care and facility indicators were recorded prospectively during the study period.
Research in high income countries shows parent-child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent-child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents' understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 10 households, 9 focus group discussions and 60 in-depth interviews.
OBJECTIVE: In order to develop patient-centered care we need to know what patients want and how changing socio-demographic factors shape their preferences. METHODS: We fielded a structured questionnaire that included a discrete choice experiment to investigate women's preferences for place of delivery care in four rural districts of Pwani Region, Tanzania. The discrete choice experiment consisted of six attributes: kind treatment by the health worker, health worker medical knowledge, modern equipment and medicines, facility privacy, facility cleanliness, and cost of visit.
RATIONALE: There are many interventions for HIV/AIDS that require that people know their status and hence require a HIV test. Testing that is driven by a desire to prevent the spread of the disease often has an indirect effect on others. These external effects need to be identified, quantified and included as part of the benefits and costs of testing. Pioneering analyses of HIV testing by Philipson and Posner have introduced the economic calculus of individual expected benefits and costs of activities into an understanding of the HIV epidemic.
BACKGROUND: Results from HIV vaccine trials on potential volunteers will contribute to global efforts to develop an HIV vaccine. The purpose of this study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was to explore the underlying reasons that induce people to enrol in an HIV vaccine trial. METHODS: We conducted discussions with eight focus groups, containing a total of 66 police officers. The information collected was analyzed using interpretive description.
Evolutionary theory predicts humans to be more altruistic towards genetically more closely related kin. Because fathers face uncertainty about the relation to their children, the asymmetric parental altruism hypothesis predicts mothers to provide a higher share of parental care than fathers. We tested this hypothesis using parental choice experiments in rural Tanzania, in which fathers and mothers could choose between an outcome that benefited themselves and an outcome that benefited their children.
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Tanzania, approved national guidelines and training materials for community health workers (CHWs) in integrated maternal, newborn and child health (Integrated MNCH), with CHWs trained and deployed across five districts of Morogoro Region soon after. To inform future scale up, this study assessed motivation and satisfaction among these CHWs. METHODS: A survey of all CHWs trained by the Integrated MNCH Programme was conducted in the last quarter of 2013.
BACKGROUND: The search for an efficacious HIV vaccine is a global priority. To date only one HIV vaccine trial (RV144) has shown modest efficacy in a phase III trial. With existing different HIV-1 subtypes and frequent mutations, multiple trials are needed from different geographical sites particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where most HIV infections occur. Thus, motivations to participate in HIV vaccine trials among Tanzanians need to be assessed. This paper describes the motives of Police Officers who showed great interest to volunteer in HIVIS-03 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
The strong activity of the patient is significant in traditional Digo ritual therapy. In contrast to Sharmanism, he, and not the healer, plays the main role. The Digo healer applies hypnosis, somatiic exercises, stimulating music, and drugs in his three-day ritual performed mainly for psychosomatic and chronic illness.
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a new compound drug (CGP 56697) against acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHOD: Reappearing parasites were analysed by PCR-RFLP within a randomized controlled trial. 130 patients received chloroquine and 130 patients were treated with CGP 56697. Samples from 96 patients with parasitological failure were tested by PCR-RFLP for MSP2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Seven days after treatment 32 patients of the chloroquine control group with reappearing parasites were tested by PCR and one infection was unequivocally determined as a new infection.