Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi Jiehe Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
OBJECTIVE: To confirm the inhibitory effect of Chinese herbs of acid taste on melanin synthesis. METHODS: Active ingredients of 22 kinds Chinese herbs of acid tastes were extracted by alkali extraction and acid precipitation, alcohol extraction, and water extraction, respectively, which was then dispensed into 25.00, 12.50, and 6.25 g/L suspension. Their effects on activities of tyrosinase were detected using mushroom-tyrosinase-DOPA speed oxidation. Their inhibition rates on activities of tyrosinase were respectively compared with inhibition rates of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mmol/L arbutin.
The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis.
Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process.
Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed.
Tested the efficacy of a smoking satiation procedure with reduced medical risk. As predicted, experimental taste satiation (holding smoke in the mouth with occasional inhalations) suppressed habitual smoking as effectively as rapid smoking satiation. In view of the extensive relapse problems that follow the singular application of aversive conditioning procedures, follow-up hypnosis and counseling treatments were applied in order to assist Ss in maintaining smoking cessation.
Historically hypnosis with deaf people has been an underutilized intervention as the deaf were assumed not to be responsive to hypnotic suggestion. Recent research has begun to challenge these assumptions. Matthews and Isenberg (in press) compared the hypnotic responsiveness of deaf and hearing subjects on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, form C (SHSS:C) all of whom received the hypnotic suggestions via sign language. Those results supported the notion that deaf subjects are capable of responding to hypnotic suggestion and may be as hypnotically responsive as hearing subjects.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including ?2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705-714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95-104, 2008; J Psychiatr Res 42:184-191, 2008). The goal of our study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action.