Anthropological evidence suggests that regional differences in eating practices may be characterized by sub-ethnicity. Hakka is one sub-ethnicity who still retain a unique way of life in China. A field survey on diet and health among the Hakka people was undertaken in 1994. Approximately 200 participants were interviewed for their medical history, life-style and food habits. Blood pressure, body mass index, blood sample, 24 h urine and electrocardiogram were collected. The food samples taken from one tenth of the participants were analyzed for the ingredients in their daily meals.
The initial observation that taurine (T) prevented stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) led us to study the effects of T on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as well as the epidemiological association of T and mortality rates, by using the data from WHO-coordinated Cardiovascular Disease and Alimentary Comparison Study, which covered 61 populations in 25 countries. In this study, 24 hour urine (24-U) samples were examined along with biomarkers of CVD risk.
Taurine (T) was first noted as beneficial for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) prevention in genetic rat models, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The preventive mechanisms of T were ascribed to sympathetic modulation for reducing blood pressure (BP) and anti-inflammatory action. Recent epidemiological surveys revealed the involvement of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of stroke and also atherosclerosis for which T was proven to be effective experimentally.
In male Swiss-Webster mice sleep time (hypnosis) was used as an index of ethanol-induced central nervous system depression. Ethanol (4 g/kg, IP) was administered to animals and the onset to sleep time (loss of the righting reflex) and the duration of sleep time were recorded. At the end of the ethanol-induced sleep time, taurine (7.5, 15 or 25 mumol/kg, ICV) was injected. Immediately after the ICV injection of taurine the mice again lost the righting reflex. This effect of taurine occurred in a dose-dependent fashion.
Long Sleep (LS) and Short Sleep (SS) mice were used in this study to investigate the interaction between ethanol and taurine. Sleep time (hypnosis) was selected as an index of ethanol-induced central nervous system depression. In order to achieve a similar degree of central nervous system depression with ethanol, SS and LS mice received 5.3 and 3.0 g/kg, IP, of ethanol, respectively.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded from dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, in acute brain slices, and from enzymatically or mechanically dissociated neurons. In young rats (3-10 d of age), where GABA is excitatory, glycine (1-3 microm) and taurine (10-30 microm) increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) and the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) but had minimal postsynaptic effects.
The physiological and pharmacological properties of taurine-induced responses were investigated in dopaminergic (DA) neurones from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of young rats aged 1-13 postnatal days, either in acute brain slices or acutely dissociated neurones. When whole-cell responses were recorded from current-clamped neurones using the gramicidin-perforated technique, the application of taurine (0.01-30 mm) accelerated firings and induced membrane depolarization.
This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine depletion produces autonomic nervous system dysregulation and increases arterial pressure in young male rats maintained on a high sugar diet. Sprague-Dawley dams were either taurine depleted (beta-alanine 3% in water) or left untreated from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow with or without 5% glucose. At 7-8 weeks of age, the male offspring were either tested in a conscious, unrestrained state or after anesthetia.
The present study tests the sex-dependent effect of perinatal taurine exposure on arterial pressure control in adults. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine depletion,TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation,TS) or water alone (C) from conception to weaning. Their male and female offspring were then fed normal rat chow and tap water with 5% glucose (C with glucose, CG; TD with glucose, TDG; TS with glucose, TSG) or water alone (CW, TDW or TSW). At 7-8 weeks of age, they were studied in a conscious condition.
The present study investigates the effect of perinatal taurine exposure on renal function in adult, female rats on a high sugar diet. Perinatal taurine depleted (TD), supplemented (TS) or untreated control (C) female offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water (CW,TDW or TSW) or tap water with 5% glucose (CG, TDG or TSG) after weaning. At 7-8 weeks of age, renal function was studied in the conscious, restrained rats. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in TDW, TDG, and TSG rats.