For nearly 70 years it has been recognized that reduction in caloric intake by 30-40% from ad libitum levels leads to a significant extension of mean and maximal lifespan in a variety of short-lived species. This effect of caloric restriction (CR) on lifespan has been reported in nearly all species tested and has been reproduced hundreds of times under a variety of different laboratory conditions. In addition to prolonging lifespan, CR also prevents or delays the onset of age-related disease and maintains many physiological functions at more youthful levels.
Studies were conducted to directly test whether the introduction of telomerase protects cancer-prone human mammary epithelial cells from chromosomal instability and spontaneous immortalization. Using a model for Li Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), infection of human telomerase resulted in maintenance of telomere lengths, extension of in vitro lifespan, and prevention of spontaneous immortalization.
Definitions of psychological abuse are reviewed and a new definition proposed, operationalized as an extension of an existing measure of childhood, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA). This semistructured, investigator-based interview is designed for use with adults to collect retrospective accounts of childhood adverse experience. The CECA extension identifies nine subtypes of psychological abuse, with a single global severity rating.
A new retrospective interview assessment of childhood psychological abuse, an extension to the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) instrument, is described in a companion article (Moran, Bifulco, Ball, Jacobs, & Benaim, 2002). The purpose of the present article is to examine the relationship of childhood psychological abuse to other adverse childhood experiences and to major depression and suicidal behavior in adult life. Childhood experience and lifetime disorder were assessed retrospectively in a high-risk, community series of London women (n = 204).
Numerous studies have shown that supplementation of the growth medium of human fibroblasts with dexamethasone at physiologic concentrations extends replicative lifespan up to 30%. While this extension of lifespan has been used to probe various aspects of the senescent phenotype, no mechanism for the increased lifespan of human fibroblasts grown in the presence of dexamethasone has ever been identified.
The lifespan of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF5), cultured under standard in vitro conditions (including ambient atmospheric oxygen tension), was extended slightly by expression of exogenous mortalin (mot-2)/mthsp70/Grp75, but not by the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT. Together, mot-2 and hTERT permitted bypass of senescence, a substantial extension of lifespan, and possibly immortalization. This is the first demonstration that mot-2 and telomerase can cooperate in the immortalization process.
NaCT (sodium-coupled citrate transporter) is an Na(+)-coupled citrate transporter identified recently in mammals that mediates the cellular uptake of citrate. It is expressed predominantly in the liver. NaCT is structurally and functionally related to the product of the Indy (I'm not dead yet) gene in Drosophila, the dysfunction of which leads to lifespan extension. Here, we show that NaCT mediates the utilization of extracellular citrate for fat synthesis in human liver cells, and that the process is stimulated by lithium.
Molecular advances of the past decade have led to the discovery of a myriad of 'aging genes' (methuselah, Indy, InR, Chico, superoxide dismutase) that extend Drosophila lifespan by up to 85%. Despite this life extension, these mutants are no longer lived than at least some recently wild-caught strains. Typically, long-lived mutants are identified in relatively short-lived genetic backgrounds, and their effects are rarely tested in genetic backgrounds other than the one in which they were isolated or derived.
A major challenge in current research into aging using model organisms is to establish whether different treatments resulting in slowed aging involve common or distinct mechanisms. Such treatments include gene mutation, dietary restriction (DR), and manipulation of reproduction, gonadal signals and temperature. The principal method used to determine whether these treatments act through common mechanisms is to compare the magnitude of the effect on aging of each treatment separately with that when two are applied simultaneously.
Caloric restriction (CR) and a reduced growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axis are associated with an extension of lifespan across taxa. Evidence is reviewed showing that CR and reduced insulin of GH-IGF-1 axis may exhibit their effects at least partly by their common stimulatory action on autophagy, the cell repair mechanism responsible for the housekeeping of cell membranes and organelles including the free radical generators peroxisomes and mitochondria.