Telomere-Binding Proteins

Publication Title: 
Likars'ka Sprava / Ministerstvo Okhorony Zdorov'ia UkraÔny

Telomeres are the ends of chromosomes and are non-coding DNA "end-capped" with structures containing DNA-quadruplexes and proteins. Telomeres become shorter after each cell division, which is one of the mechanisms of gradual ageing. Telomerase is the reverse transcriptase responsible for the extension of telomere length. It is well known that activation of telomerase in the most types of organism's cells is not enough for telomere length stabilization. The reason may be in the telomere "caps", which cover telomere ends from telomerase action.

Author(s): 
Osipov, N. V.
Publication Title: 
Nature

The lengths of human telomeres, which protect chromosome ends from degradation and end fusions, are crucial determinants of cell lifespan. During embryogenesis and in cancer, the telomerase enzyme counteracts telomeric DNA shortening. As shown in cancer cells, human telomerase binds the shelterin component TPP1 at telomeres during the S phase of the cell cycle, and adds ~60 nucleotides in a single round of extension, after which telomerase is turned off by unknown mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Chen, Liuh-Yow
Redon, Sophie
Lingner, Joachim
Publication Title: 
Nature

The lengths of human telomeres, which protect chromosome ends from degradation and end fusions, are crucial determinants of cell lifespan. During embryogenesis and in cancer, the telomerase enzyme counteracts telomeric DNA shortening. As shown in cancer cells, human telomerase binds the shelterin component TPP1 at telomeres during the S phase of the cell cycle, and adds ~60 nucleotides in a single round of extension, after which telomerase is turned off by unknown mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Chen, Liuh-Yow
Redon, Sophie
Lingner, Joachim
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Cell Biology

We identified and characterized a human orthologue of Rif1 protein, which in budding yeast interacts in vivo with the major duplex telomeric DNA binding protein Rap1p and negatively regulates telomere length. Depletion of hRif1 by RNA interference in human cancer cells impaired cell growth but had no detectable effect on telomere length, although hRif1 overexpression in S. cerevisiae interfered with telomere length control, in a manner specifically dependent on the presence of yeast Rif1p.

Author(s): 
Xu, Lifeng
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Telomere length is maintained through a dynamic balance between addition and loss of the terminal telomeric DNA. Normal telomere length regulation requires telomerase as well as a telomeric protein-DNA complex. Previous work has provided evidence that in the budding yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the telomeric double-stranded DNA binding protein Rap1p negatively regulates telomere length, in part by nucleating, by its C-terminal tail, a higher-order DNA binding protein complex that presumably limits access of telomerase to the chromosome end.

Author(s): 
Krauskopf, A.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

At the core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres is an array of tandem telomeric DNA repeats bound site-specifically by multiple Rap1 molecules. There, Rap1 orchestrates the binding of additional telomere-associated proteins and negatively regulates both telomere fusion and length homeostasis. Using electron microscopy, viscosity, and light scattering measurements, we show that purified Rap1 is a monomer in solution that adopts a ringlike or C shape with a central cavity.

Author(s): 
Williams, Tanya L.
Levy, Daniel L.
Maki-Yonekura, Saori
Yonekura, Koji
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Current biology: CB

BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that copies a short RNA template into telomeric DNA, maintaining eukaryotic chromosome ends and preventing replicative senescence. Telomeres differentiate chromosome ends from DNA double-stranded breaks. Nevertheless, the DNA damage-responsive ATM kinases Tel1p and Mec1p are required for normal telomere maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We tested whether the ATM kinases are required for telomerase enzyme activity or whether it is their action on the telomere that allows telomeric DNA synthesis.

Author(s): 
Chan, S. W.
Chang, J.
Prescott, J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Biology of the Cell

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, telomeric DNA is protected by a nonnucleosomal protein complex, tethered by the protein Rap1. Rif and Sir proteins, which interact with Rap1p, are thought to have further interactions with conventional nucleosomic chromatin to create a repressive structure that protects the chromosome end.

Author(s): 
Smith, C. D.
Smith, D. L.
DeRisi, J. L.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Telomere dysfunction is linked with genome instability and premature aging. Roles for sirtuin proteins at telomeres are thought to promote lifespan in yeast and mammals. However, replicative lifespan of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shortens upon deletion of Rif1, a protein that limits the recruitment of the sirtuin histone deacetylase Sir2 to telomeres. Here we show that Rif1 maintains replicative lifespan by ultimately stabilizing another age-related chromosomal domain harboring the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats.

Author(s): 
Salvi, Jayesh S.
Chan, Janet N. Y.
Pettigrew, Christopher
Liu, Tony T.
Wu, Jane D.
Mekhail, Karim
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