Telomere Homeostasis

Publication Title: 
Journal of Cell Science

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein consisting of a catalytic subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), and an integrally associated RNA that contains a template for the synthesis of short repetitive G-rich DNA sequences at the ends of telomeres. Telomerase can repetitively reverse transcribe its short RNA template, acting processively to add multiple telomeric repeats onto the same DNA substrate. The contribution of enzyme processivity to telomere length regulation in human cells is not well characterized.

Author(s): 
D'Souza, Yasmin
Lauzon, Catherine
Chu, Tsz Wai
Autexier, Chantal
Publication Title: 
Molecular Biology of the Cell

Short, repetitive, G-rich telomeric sequences are synthesized by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein consisting of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and an integrally associated RNA. Human TERT (hTERT) can repetitively reverse transcribe its RNA template, acting processively to add multiple telomeric repeats onto the same substrate. We investigated whether certain threshold levels of telomerase activity and processivity are required to maintain telomere function and immortalize human cells with limited lifespan.

Author(s): 
D'Souza, Yasmin
Chu, Tsz Wai
Autexier, Chantal
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, the mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, p<0.05) than in other areas of Costa Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related.

Author(s): 
Rehkopf, David H.
Dow, William H.
Rosero-Bixby, Luis
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Tsitologiia

Interdisciplinary study of telomere length, polymorphism of genes of renin-angiotensin (ACE) and serotonin (5HTR2A and 5HTTPR) systems in population of aged and old inhabitants of the North-West of Russia was conducted, in their relations to data from clinical and geriatric anamnesis, and psychological functioning. Regular link between telomere length and respondent's age was demonstrated in subgroups of old respondents and long-livers, by method of factor analysis.

Author(s): 
Smirnova, T. Iu
Runov, A. L.
Vonski?, M. S.
Spivak, D. L.
Zakharchuk, A. G.
Mikhel'son, V. M.
Spivak, I. M.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Biomarkers of aging are essential to predict mortality and aging-related diseases. Paradoxically, age itself imposes a limitation on the use of known biomarkers of aging because their associations with mortality generally diminish with age. How this pattern arises is, however, not understood. With meta-analysis we show that human leucocyte telomere length (TL) predicts mortality, and that this mortality association diminishes with age, as found for other biomarkers of aging.

Author(s): 
Boonekamp, Jelle J.
Simons, Mirre J. P.
Hemerik, Lia
Verhulst, Simon
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with atherosclerosis in adults and diminished survival in the elderly. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL at birth, which is highly variable, and its age-dependent attrition thereafter, which is rapid during the first 20 years of life. We examined whether age-dependent LTL attrition during adulthood can substantially affect individuals' LTL ranking (e.g., longer or shorter LTL) in relation to their peers. We measured LTL in samples donated 12 years apart on average by 1156 participants in four longitudinal studies.

Author(s): 
Benetos, Athanase
Kark, Jeremy D.
Susser, Ezra
Kimura, Masayuki
Sinnreich, Ronit
Chen, Wei
Steenstrup, Troels
Christensen, Kaare
Herbig, Utz
von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob
Srinivasan, Sathanur R.
Berenson, Gerald S.
Labat, Carlos
Aviv, Abraham
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and rate of telomere shortening are known biomarkers of aging while, numerous studies showed that Mediterranean diet (MD) may boost longevity. We studied association between telomere length, telomerase activity and different adherence to MD and its effects on healthy status. The study was conducted in 217 elderly subjects stratified according Mediterranean diet score (MDS) in low adherence (MDS?3), medium adherence (MDS 4-5) and high adherence (MDS?6) groups.

Author(s): 
Boccardi, Virginia
Esposito, Antonietta
Rizzo, Maria Rosaria
Marfella, Raffaele
Barbieri, Michelangela
Paolisso, Giuseppe
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, the mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, p<0.05) than in other areas of Costa Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related.

Author(s): 
Rehkopf, David H.
Dow, William H.
Rosero-Bixby, Luis
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Trends in Biochemical Sciences

In recent years there has been a large expansion in our understanding of SIRT6 biology including its structure, regulation, biochemical activity, and biological roles. SIRT6 functions as an ADP-ribosylase and NAD(+)-dependent deacylase of both acetyl groups and long-chain fatty-acyl groups. Through these functions SIRT6 impacts upon cellular homeostasis by regulating DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and glucose and lipid metabolism, thus affecting diseases such diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and cancer. Such roles may contribute to the overall longevity and health of the organism.

Author(s): 
Kugel, Sita
Mostoslavsky, Raul
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and rate of telomere shortening are known biomarkers of aging while, numerous studies showed that Mediterranean diet (MD) may boost longevity. We studied association between telomere length, telomerase activity and different adherence to MD and its effects on healthy status. The study was conducted in 217 elderly subjects stratified according Mediterranean diet score (MDS) in low adherence (MDS?3), medium adherence (MDS 4-5) and high adherence (MDS?6) groups.

Author(s): 
Boccardi, Virginia
Esposito, Antonietta
Rizzo, Maria Rosaria
Marfella, Raffaele
Barbieri, Michelangela
Paolisso, Giuseppe

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