Telomere Shortening

Publication Title: 
PloS One

Caloric restriction (CR), a reduction of food intake while avoiding malnutrition, can delay the onset of cancer and age-related diseases in several species, including mice. In addition, depending of the genetic background, CR can also increase or decrease mouse longevity. This has highlighted the importance of identifying the molecular pathways that interplay with CR in modulating longevity. Significant lifespan extension in mice has been recently achieved through over-expression of the catalytic subunit of mouse telomerase (mTERT) in a cancer protective background.

Author(s): 
Vera, Elsa
Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno
Foronda, Miguel
Flores, Juana M.
Blasco, Maria A.
Publication Title: 
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are of primary importance as they cause damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA either endogenously by cellular mechanism, or through exogenous exposure to environmental injury factors, including oxidation insult factors, such as tobacco smoke. Currently 46.3 million adults (25.7 percent of the population) are smokers. This includes 24 million men (28.1 percent of the total) and more than 22 million women (23.5 percent). The prevalence is highest among persons 25-44 years of age. Cigarette smokers have a higher risk of developing several chronic disorders.

Author(s): 
Babizhayev, Mark A.
Yegorov, Yegor E.
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

Leukocyte telomere length is widely considered a biomarker of human age and in many studies indicative of health or disease. We have obtained quantitative estimates of telomere length from blood leukocytes in a population sample, confirming results of previous studies that telomere length significantly decreases with age. Telomere length was also positively associated with several measures of healthy aging, but this relationship was dependent on age.

Author(s): 
Kim, Sangkyu
Bi, Xiuhua
Czarny-Ratajczak, Malwina
Dai, Jianliang
Welsh, David A.
Myers, Leann
Welsch, Michael A.
Cherry, Katie E.
Arnold, Jonathan
Poon, Leonard W.
Jazwinski, S. Michal
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Blind mole rats Spalax (BMR) are small subterranean rodents common in the Middle East. BMR is distinguished by its adaptations to life underground, remarkable longevity (with a maximum documented lifespan of 21 y), and resistance to cancer. Spontaneous tumors have never been observed in spalacids. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this resistance, we examined the growth of BMR fibroblasts in vitro of the species Spalax judaei and Spalax golani.

Author(s): 
Gorbunova, Vera
Hine, Christopher
Tian, Xiao
Ablaeva, Julia
Gudkov, Andrei V.
Nevo, Eviatar
Seluanov, Andrei
Publication Title: 
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life ("health-span").

Author(s): 
Conde-PÈrezprina, Juan CristÛbal
LeÛn-Galv·n, Miguel ¡ngel
Konigsberg, Mina
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Caloric restriction (CR), a reduction of food intake while avoiding malnutrition, can delay the onset of cancer and age-related diseases in several species, including mice. In addition, depending of the genetic background, CR can also increase or decrease mouse longevity. This has highlighted the importance of identifying the molecular pathways that interplay with CR in modulating longevity. Significant lifespan extension in mice has been recently achieved through over-expression of the catalytic subunit of mouse telomerase (mTERT) in a cancer protective background.

Author(s): 
Vera, Elsa
Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno
Foronda, Miguel
Flores, Juana M.
Blasco, Maria A.
Publication Title: 
Current Aging Science

According to our conception, the aging process is caused by cell proliferation restriction-induced accumulation of various macromolecular defects (mainly DNA damage) in cells of a mature organism or in a cell population. In the case of cell cultures, the proliferation restriction is related to so-called contact inhibition and to the Hayflick's limit, while in the case of multicellular organisms, it is related to the appearance, in the process of differentiation, of organs and tissues consisting of postmitotic and very slowly dividing cells.

Author(s): 
Khokhlov, Alexander N.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with atherosclerosis in adults and diminished survival in the elderly. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL at birth, which is highly variable, and its age-dependent attrition thereafter, which is rapid during the first 20 years of life. We examined whether age-dependent LTL attrition during adulthood can substantially affect individuals' LTL ranking (e.g., longer or shorter LTL) in relation to their peers. We measured LTL in samples donated 12 years apart on average by 1156 participants in four longitudinal studies.

Author(s): 
Benetos, Athanase
Kark, Jeremy D.
Susser, Ezra
Kimura, Masayuki
Sinnreich, Ronit
Chen, Wei
Steenstrup, Troels
Christensen, Kaare
Herbig, Utz
von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob
Srinivasan, Sathanur R.
Berenson, Gerald S.
Labat, Carlos
Aviv, Abraham
Publication Title: 
Disease Models & Mechanisms

The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio) as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases.

Author(s): 
Anchelin, Monique
Alcaraz-PÈrez, Francisca
MartÌnez, Carlos M.
BernabÈ-GarcÌa, Manuel
Mulero, Victoriano
Cayuela, MarÌa L.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) ostensibly shortens with age and has been moderately associated with mortality. In humans, these findings have come almost solely from cross-sectional studies. Only recently has LTL shortening within individuals been analyzed in longitudinal studies. Such studies are relevant to establish LTL dynamics as biomarkers of mortality as well as to disentangle the causality of telomeres on aging. METHODS: We present a large longitudinal study on LTL and human mortality, where the 10-year change of LTL is analyzed in 1,356 individuals aged 30-70 years.

Author(s): 
Bendix, Laila
Thinggaard, Mikael
Fenger, Mogens
Kolvraa, Steen
Avlund, Kirsten
Linneberg, Allan
Osler, Merete

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