Temperament

Publication Title: 
Mutation Research

Recent research has demonstrated that telomere maintenance might be a key integrating point for the cumulative effects of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors on aging and aging-related diseases. It is timely to 'take stock' of where this work has led the field. This review summarizes studies that have examined associations between lifestyle factors and telomere length and telomerase activity.

Author(s): 
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Publication Title: 
Mutation Research

Recent research has demonstrated that telomere maintenance might be a key integrating point for the cumulative effects of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors on aging and aging-related diseases. It is timely to 'take stock' of where this work has led the field. This review summarizes studies that have examined associations between lifestyle factors and telomere length and telomerase activity.

Author(s): 
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Publication Title: 
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

Alcoholism etiology is discussed from a developmental behavior genetic perspective. At the outset point, temperament characteristics, by means of ongoing and reciprocal interaction with the social environment, shape the course of behavioral development. The behavioral characteristics successively acquired during development are vectors that determine the ontogenetic trajectory that culminates ultimately in the clinical disorder of alcoholism. The temperament features that appear to be associated with a heightened risk for alcoholism are examined.

Author(s): 
Tarter, R. E.
Vanyukov, M.
Publication Title: 
Genes, Brain, and Behavior

The results of a large body of candidate gene studies of behavioural and psychiatric phenotypes have been largely inconclusive, with most findings failing to replicate reliably.

Author(s): 
MunafÚ, M. R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

Gene-environment interplay is a general term that covers several divergent concepts with different meanings and different implications. In this review, we evaluate research evidence on four varieties of gene-environment interplay. First, we consider epigenetic mechanisms by which environmental influences alter the effects of genes. Second, we focus on variations in heritability according to environmental circumstances. Third, we discuss what is known about gene-environment correlations.

Author(s): 
Rutter, Michael
Moffitt, Terrie E.
Caspi, Avshalom
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

This paper reviews publications on developmental trajectories of disruptive behaviour (DB) problems (aggression, opposition-defiance, rule breaking, and stealing-vandalism) over the past decade. Prior to these studies two theoretical models had strongly influenced research on DB: social learning and disease onset. According to these developmental perspectives, children learn DB from their environment and onset of the disease is triggered by accumulated exposition to disruptive models in the environment, including the media.

Author(s): 
Tremblay, Richard E.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatria Danubina

After 30 years of clinical work and research based on categorical criteria for personality disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - DSM IV TR) and (International Classification of Diseases - ICD 10th revision), a solid conceptual understanding and treatment of these disorders have not been established. For the field to move forward, it is imperative that future classifications introduce major revisions of the concept, diagnosis, and classification of personality disorders. This paper proposes one such revision.

Author(s): 
Svrakic, Dragan M.
Cloninger, Robert C.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

A swiftly growing volume of literature, comprising both human and animal studies and employing both observational and experimental designs, has documented striking individual differences in neurobiological sensitivities to environmental circumstances within subgroups of study samples.

Author(s): 
Boyce, W. Thomas
Publication Title: 
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics

The present studies were designed in order to obtain a better understanding of the nomological network of the alexithymia concept. In study I, the links between alexithymia, coping, and self-rated health were explored. As predicted, strong negative correlations were found between alexithymia and the expression of emotions, daydreams and fantasies, and planful and rational actions. Contrary to expectations, no clear associations were found with self-reported health status. In study II, the focus was on links with personality, temperament, and self-reported (susceptibility to) homesickness.

Author(s): 
Vingerhoets, A. J.
Van Heck, G. L.
Grim, R.
Bermond, B.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Reports

The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of temperament and love attitudes with eating behaviors in 190 college-aged nonclinical women who completed a survey that included measures of temperament, loving-style, and eating attitudes. Certain temperament and loving-style variables showed significant statistical association with scores on eating attitudes.

Author(s): 
Worobey, J.

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