Templates, Genetic

Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme telomerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae adds telomeric DNA to chromosomal ends in short increments both in vivo and in vitro. Whether or not telomerase functions as a multimer has not been addressed previously. Here we show, first, that following polymerization, the telomerase RNP remains stably bound to its telomeric oligonucleotide reaction product. We then exploit this finding and a previously reported mutant telomerase RNA to demonstrate that, unexpectedly, the S.

Author(s): 
Prescott, J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA by copying an internal RNA template sequence. The telomerase activities of the yeasts Saccharomyces castellii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae--with regular and irregular telomeric sequences, respectively--have now been identified and characterized. The S. cerevisiae activity required the telomerase RNA gene TLC1 but not the EST1 gene, both of which are required for normal telomere maintenance in vivo. This activity exhibited low processivity and produced no regularly repeated products.

Author(s): 
Cohn, M.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

The RNA moiety of the ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase from the ciliate Euplotes crassus was identified and its gene was sequenced. Functional analysis, in which oligonucleotides complementary to portions of the telomerase RNA were tested for their ability to prime telomerase in vitro, showed that the sequence 5' CAAAACCCCAAA 3' in this RNA is the template for synthesis of telomeric TTTTGGGG repeats by the Euplotes telomerase. The data provide a direct demonstration of a template function for a telomerase RNA and demarcate the outer boundaries of the telomeric template.

Author(s): 
Shippen-Lentz, D.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
The EMBO journal

Telomerase, an essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase, adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. We examined the conformational properties of the naked RNA moiety of telomerase from two related ciliates, Tetrahymena thermophila and Glaucoma chattoni. As well as finding evidence for features proposed previously on the basis of phylogenetic comparisons, novel conserved structural properties were revealed.

Author(s): 
Bhattacharyya, A.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Molecular Biology
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA by copying an internal RNA template sequence. The telomerase activities of the yeasts Saccharomyces castellii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae--with regular and irregular telomeric sequences, respectively--have now been identified and characterized. The S. cerevisiae activity required the telomerase RNA gene TLC1 but not the EST1 gene, both of which are required for normal telomere maintenance in vivo. This activity exhibited low processivity and produced no regularly repeated products.

Author(s): 
Cohn, M.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Nature

Mutating the CAACCCCAA sequence in the RNA component of telomerase causes the synthesis in vivo of new telomere sequences corresponding to the mutated RNA sequence, demonstrating that the telomerase contains the template for telomere synthesis. These mutations also lead to nuclear and cell division defects, and senescence, establishing an essential role for telomerase in vivo.

Author(s): 
Yu, G. L.
Bradley, J. D.
Attardi, L. D.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

The reverse transcriptase telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, using a sequence within its endogenous RNA component as a template. Although templating domains of telomerase RNA have been studied in detail, little is known about the roles of the remaining residues, particularly in yeast. We examined the functions of nontemplate telomerase residues in the telomerase RNA of budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

Author(s): 
Roy, J.
Fulton, T. B.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The ribonucleoprotein telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA by copying an intrinsic RNA template. In most cancer cells, telomerase is highly activated. Here we report a telomerase-based antitumor strategy: expression of mutant-template telomerase RNAs in human cancer cells. We expressed mutant-template human telomerase RNAs in prostate (LNCaP) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. Even a low threshold level of expression of telomerase RNA gene constructs containing various mutant templates, but not the control wild-type template, decreased cellular viability and increased apoptosis.

Author(s): 
Kim, M. M.
Rivera, M. A.
Botchkina, I. L.
Shalaby, R.
Thor, A. D.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Nature

Mutating the CAACCCCAA sequence in the RNA component of telomerase causes the synthesis in vivo of new telomere sequences corresponding to the mutated RNA sequence, demonstrating that the telomerase contains the template for telomere synthesis. These mutations also lead to nuclear and cell division defects, and senescence, establishing an essential role for telomerase in vivo.

Author(s): 
Yu, G. L.
Bradley, J. D.
Attardi, L. D.
Blackburn, E. H.

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