Temporal Lobe

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy remain refractory to drug treatment and continue to experience seizures whilst taking one or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Several non-pharmacological interventions that may be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to AEDs are available for refractory patients.

Author(s): 
Jackson, Cerian F.
Makin, Selina M.
Marson, Anthony G.
Kerr, Michael
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy remain refractory to drug treatment and continue to experience seizures whilst taking one or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Several non-pharmacological interventions that may be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to AEDs are available for refractory patients.

Author(s): 
Jackson, Cerian F.
Makin, Selina M.
Marson, Anthony G.
Kerr, Michael
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

Among the sensory modalities, olfaction is most closely associated with the frontal and temporal brain regions that are implicated in schizophrenia and most intimately related to the affective and mnemonic functions that these regions subserve. Olfactory probes may therefore be ideal tools through which to assess the structural and functional integrity of the neural substrates that underlie disease-related cognitive and emotional disturbances.

Author(s): 
Turetsky, Bruce I.
Hahn, Chang-Gyu
Borgmann-Winter, Karin
Moberg, Paul J.
Publication Title: 
Archives of General Psychiatry

CONTEXT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and BDNF levels are decreased in the brain and plasma of suicide subjects. So far, the mechanisms leading to downregulation of BDNF expression are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that alterations of DNA methylation could be involved in the dysregulation of BDNF gene expression in the brain of suicide subjects. DESIGN: Three independent quantitative methylation techniques were performed on postmortem samples of brain tissue.

Author(s): 
Keller, Simona
Sarchiapone, Marco
Zarrilli, Federica
Videtic, Alja
Ferraro, Angelo
Carli, Vladimir
Sacchetti, Silvana
Lembo, Francesca
Angiolillo, Antonella
Jovanovic, Nikolina
Pisanti, Francesco
Tomaiuolo, Rossella
Monticelli, Antonella
Balazic, Joze
Roy, Alec
Marusic, Andrej
Cocozza, Sergio
Fusco, Alfredo
Bruni, Carmelo B.
Castaldo, Giuseppe
Chiariotti, Lorenzo
Publication Title: 
International Review of Psychiatry (Abingdon, England)

The relationship between specific genes and particular diseases in neuropsychiatry is unclear, and newer studies focus on shared domains of neurobiological and cognitive pathology across different disorders. This paper reviews the evidence for an association between schizophrenia and frontotemporal dementia, including symptom similarity, familial co-morbidity, and neuroanatomical changes. Genetic as well as epigenetic findings from both schizophrenia and frontotemporal dementia are also discussed.

Author(s): 
Harciarek, Micha?
Malaspina, Dolores
Sun, Tao
Goldberg, Elkhonon
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorders defined clinically by a triad of features including impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication in social situations and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests, with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. Although heritability estimates for ASD are high, conventional genetic-based efforts to identify genes involved in ASD have yielded only few reproducible candidate genes that account for only a small proportion of ASDs.

Author(s): 
Ladd-Acosta, C.
Hansen, K. D.
Briem, E.
Fallin, M. D.
Kaufmann, W. E.
Feinberg, A. P.
Publication Title: 
Acta Neuropathologica Communications

BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors remain to be elucidated. Mutations in genes linked to autism adversely affect molecules regulating dendritic spine formation, function and plasticity, and some increase the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, a regulator of protein synthesis at spines. Here, we investigated whether the Akt/mTOR pathway is disrupted in idiopathic autism and in rats exposed to valproic acid, an animal model exhibiting autistic-like behavior.

Author(s): 
Nicolini, Chiara
Ahn, Younghee
Michalski, Bernadeta
Rho, Jong M.
Fahnestock, Margaret
Publication Title: 
ACS chemical neuroscience

Alzheimer's disease is associated with metabolic deficits and reduced mitochondrial function, with the latter due to the effects of oligomeric amyloid beta peptide (A?O) on the respiratory chain. Recent evidence has demonstrated reduction of epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation, in Alzheimer's disease. Here we demonstrate a link between metabolic and epigenetic deficits via reduction of mitochondrial function which alters the expression of mediators of epigenetic modifications.

Author(s): 
Mastroeni, Diego
Khdour, Omar M.
Arce, Pablo M.
Hecht, Sidney M.
Coleman, Paul D.
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

Given the tissue-specific nature of epigenetic processes, the assessment of disease-relevant tissue is an important consideration for epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). Little is known about whether easily accessible tissues, such as whole blood, can be used to address questions about interindividual epigenomic variation in inaccessible tissues, such as the brain. We quantified DNA methylation in matched DNA samples isolated from whole blood and 4 brain regions (prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum) from 122 individuals.

Author(s): 
Hannon, Eilis
Lunnon, Katie
Schalkwyk, Leonard
Mill, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
Genome Medicine

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease affects ~13% of people in the United States 65 years and older, making it the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent work has identified roles for environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors in Alzheimer's disease risk. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide screen of DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform on bulk tissue samples from the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and non-demented controls.

Author(s): 
Watson, Corey T.
Roussos, Panos
Garg, Paras
Ho, Daniel J.
Azam, Nidha
Katsel, Pavel L.
Haroutunian, Vahram
Sharp, Andrew J.

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