Teratogens

Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects on viability even at lowest concentrations. By contrast and unlike higher concentrations, we here find that exposure to low-dose arsenite promotes growth of cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode C. elegans, low-dose arsenite promotes resistance against thermal and chemical stressors and extends lifespan of this metazoan, whereas higher concentrations reduce longevity. While arsenite causes a transient increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in C.

Author(s): 
Schmeisser, Sebastian
Schmeisser, Kathrin
Weimer, Sandra
Groth, Marco
Priebe, Steffen
Fazius, Eugen
Kuhlow, Doreen
Pick, Denis
Einax, J¸rgen W.
Guthke, Reinhard
Platzer, Matthias
Zarse, Kim
Ristow, Michael
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects on viability even at lowest concentrations. By contrast and unlike higher concentrations, we here find that exposure to low-dose arsenite promotes growth of cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode C. elegans, low-dose arsenite promotes resistance against thermal and chemical stressors and extends lifespan of this metazoan, whereas higher concentrations reduce longevity. While arsenite causes a transient increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in C.

Author(s): 
Schmeisser, Sebastian
Schmeisser, Kathrin
Weimer, Sandra
Groth, Marco
Priebe, Steffen
Fazius, Eugen
Kuhlow, Doreen
Pick, Denis
Einax, J¸rgen W.
Guthke, Reinhard
Platzer, Matthias
Zarse, Kim
Ristow, Michael
Publication Title: 
The American journal of bioethics: AJOB

The Catholic Church proscribes methods of birth control other than sexual abstinence. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes abstinence as an acceptable method of birth control in research studies, some pharmaceutical companies mandate the use of artificial contraceptive techniques to avoid pregnancy as a condition for participation in their studies. These requirements are unacceptable at Catholic health care institutions, leading to conflicts among institutional review boards, clinical investigators, and sponsors.

Author(s): 
Casey, Murray Joseph
O'Brien, Richard
Rendell, Marc
Salzman, Todd
Publication Title: 
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)

Preclinical studies in rodents have demonstrated that artemisinins, especially injectable artesunate, can induce fetal death and congenital malformations at a low dose range. The embryotoxicity can be induced in those animals only within a narrow window in early embryogenesis. Evidence was presented that the mechanism by which embryotoxicity of artemisinins occurs seems to be limited to fetal erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis/ angiogenesis on the very earliest developing red blood cells, causing severe anemia in the embryos with higher drug peak concentrations.

Author(s): 
Li, Qigui
Weina, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)

Semisynthetic artemisinin-based therapies are the first-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria, but next-generation synthetic drug candidates are urgently required to improve availability and respond to the emergence of artemisinin-resistant parasites. Artemisinins are embryotoxic in animal models and induce apoptosis in sensitive mammalian cells. Understanding the cytotoxic propensities of antimalarial drug candidates is crucial to their successful development and utilization.

Author(s): 
Copple, Ian M.
Mercer, Amy E.
Firman, James
Donegan, Gail
Herpers, Bram
Wong, Michael Hl
Chadwick, James
Bringela, Andreia D.
Cristiano, Maria L. S.
van de Water, Bob
Ward, Stephen A.
O'Neill, Paul M.
Park, B. Kevin
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

An ayurvedic contraceptive--pippaliyadi vati, containing equal parts of powdered seeds or fruit berries of Embelia ribes, fruit of Piper longum and borax powder was fed orally to two groups of pregnant rats: 2.5 times to one and five times to the other; the recommended dose for humans. The foetuses of mothers fed with pippaliyadi had low birth weights and were smaller in length. The mothers gained less weight during gestation. Developmental defects of soft tissues and skeletons were analyzed.

Author(s): 
Chaudhury, M. R.
Chandrasekaran, R.
Mishra, S.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Asparagus racemosus (AR) is a herb used as a rasayana in Ayurveda and is considered both general and female reproductive tonic. Methanolic extract of A. racemosus roots (ARM; 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days) showed teratological disorders in terms of increased resorption of fetuses, gross malformations e.g. swelling in legs and intrauterine growth retardation with a small placental size in Charles Foster rats. Pups born to mother exposed to ARM for full duration of gestation showed evidence of higher rate of resorption and therefore smaller litter size.

Author(s): 
Goel, R. K.
Prabha, T.
Kumar, M. Mohan
Dorababu, M.
Prakash, null
Singh, G.
Publication Title: 
Current Vascular Pharmacology

Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginsenosides, the major pharmacologically active ingredients of ginseng, appear to be responsible for most of the activities of ginseng including vasorelaxation, antioxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. Approximately 40 ginsenoside compounds have been identified. Researchers now focus on using purified individual ginsenoside to reveal the specific mechanism of functions of ginseng instead of using whole ginseng root extracts.

Author(s): 
Lü, Jian-Ming
Yao, Qizhi
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)

We have previously described diminished uterine progesterone response and increased uterine sensitivity to inflammation in adult female mice with a history of developmental exposure to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Since parturition in mammals is an inflammatory process mediated in part by a decline in progesterone action, toxicant-mediated disruption of progesterone receptor (PR) expression at the maternal-fetal interface would likely impact the timing of birth.

Author(s): 
Ding, Tianbing
McConaha, Melinda
Boyd, Kelli L.
Osteen, Kevin G.
Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.
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