Searching for new natural drugs that are capable of targeting Th1 and Th17 may lead to development of more effective treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Most of the natural drugs can be derived from plants that are used in traditional medicine and folk medicine. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and introduce plants or plant derivatives that are effective on inflammatory diseases by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 responses.
Discoveries of immunomodulatory functions in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have suggested that they might have therapeutic utility in treating immune diseases. Recently, a novel MSC population was identified from dental pulp of human supernumerary teeth, and its multipotency characterized. Herein, we first examined the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory functions of human supernumerary tooth-derived stem cells (SNTSCs).
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immunological disorders of the gastrointestinal tract such as inflammatory bowel disease often result in recurrent and persistently elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) is involved in tumor necrosis factor-mediated colon epithelial cell survival, yet its role in chronic inflammation has not been defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that KSR1 is protective against spontaneous experimental colitis.
Th17 cells produce IL-17 that plays an important role in host defense. However, little is known about whether aging affects human Th17 cells. Here we demonstrated that healthy elderly people (age ≥ 65) had a decreased frequency of IL-17-producing cells in memory CD4(+) T cells compared to healthy young people (age ≤ 40) while both groups had similar frequencies of IFN-γ-producing cells in the same memory cell subset as measured by flow cytometry.
CD44 is expressed by a variety of cells, including glial and T cells. Furthermore, in the demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis, CD44 expression is chronically elevated. In this study, we demonstrate that targeted deletion of CD44 attenuated myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitomyelitis (EAE) through novel regulatory mechanisms affecting Th differentiation.
Multiple pathways converge to result in the overexpression of T(h)17 cells in the absence of either vitamin D or the vitamin D receptor (VDR). CD4(+) T cells from VDR knockout (KO) mice have a more activated phenotype than their wild-type (WT) counterparts and readily develop into T(h)17 cells under a variety of in vitro conditions. Vitamin D-deficient CD4(+) T cells also overproduced IL-17 in vitro and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibited the development of T(h)17 cells in CD4(+) T-cell cultures.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of T helper (Th)17 cells that produce the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 has substantially advanced our understanding of T-cell biology and autoimmunity. We will review recent findings on effector T cells, in particular Th17 cells, in lupus. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies reported increased IL-17 levels in the circulation and tissues in human and murine lupus. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) had an increased frequency of Th17 cells in peripheral blood which correlated with disease activity.
BACKGROUND: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is well characterized to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals. More recently, AhR activation has been shown to regulate the differentiation of Foxp3(+) Tregs as well as Th17 cells. However, the precise mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AhR ligand, on epigenetic regulation leading to altered Treg/Th17 differentiation, and consequent suppression of colitis.
The differentiation of T helper (Th) cells is critically dependent on cytokine milieu. The innate immune monocytes produce IL-1β which can affect the development of Th17 and Th1 cells that predominantly produce IL-17 and IFN-γ, respectively. Oligosaccharides from microorganisms, crops and mushrooms can stimulate innate immune cells. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) that contains a large amount of oligosaccharides is a natural extract prepared from the mycelium of the edible Basidiomycete fungus.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects ≈ 400,000 people in the US. It is a chronic, disabling disease with no cure, and the current treatment includes use of immunosuppressive drugs that often exhibit toxic side effects. Thus, there is a pressing need for alternate and more effective treatment strategies that target the components of inflammatory cells. In recent years, regulatory T-cells (Tregs) have been found to play an important role in preventing the development of autoimmunity.