Intracellular calcium controls several crucial cellular events in apicomplexan parasites, including protein secretion, motility, and invasion into and egress from host cells. The plant compound thapsigargin inhibits the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), resulting in elevated calcium and induction of protein secretion in Toxoplasma gondii. Artemisinins are natural products that show potent and selective activity against parasites, making them useful for the treatment of malaria.
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
Analogs of the malaria therapeutic, artemisinin, possess in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. In this study, two dimeric artemisinins (NSC724910 and 735847) were studied to determine their mechanism of action. Dimers were >1,000 fold more active than monomer and treatment was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis induction. Dimer activity was inhibited by the antioxidant L-NAC, the iron chelator desferroxamine and exogenous hemin.
BACKGROUND: Semi-synthetic artemisinin derivatives are powerful peroxidic drugs in artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) recommended as first-line treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in disease-endemic countries. Studies by Eckstein-Ludwig and co-workers showed both thapsigargin and artemisinin specifically inhibit the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²?-ATPase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfATP6). In the present study the type of interaction between thapsigargin and artemisinin derivatives as well as the ozonide OZ277 (RBx11160 or arterolane) was evaluated in parasite cultures.
Diets high in soy are neuroprotective in experimental stroke. This protective effect is hypothesized to be mediated by phytoestrogens contained in soy, because some of these compounds have neuroprotective effects in in vitro models of cell death. We tested the ability of the soy phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein, and the daidzein metabolite equol to protect embryonic rat primary cortical neurons from ischemic-like injury in vitro at doses typical of circulating concentrations in human populations (0.1-1 microM).
Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is an adenosine analog, isolated from Cordyceps militaris, and it has been used as an anticancer and anti-inflammation ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) on human platelet aggregation, which was induced by thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, and determined the cytosolic free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) (an aggregation-stimulating molecule) and cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) (an aggregation-inhibiting molecule).