The brown fat specific UnCoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) is involved in thermogenesis, a process by which energy is dissipated as heat in response to cold stress and excess of caloric intake. Thermogenesis has potential implications for body mass control and cellular fat metabolism. In fact, in humans, the variability of the UCP1 gene is associated with obesity, fat gain and metabolism. Since regulation of metabolism is one of the key-pathways in lifespan extension, we tested the possible effects of UCP1 variability on survival.
Loss of nonshivering thermogenesis in mice by inactivation of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein gene (Ucp1-/- mice) causes increased sensitivity to cold and unexpected resistance to diet-induced obesity at a young age. To clarify the role of UCP1 in body weight regulation throughout life and influence of UCP1 deficiency on longevity, we longitudinally analyzed the phenotypes of Ucp1-/- mice maintained in a room at 23 degrees C.
Stories of g-tummo meditators mysteriously able to dry wet sheets wrapped around their naked bodies during a frigid Himalayan ceremony have intrigued scholars and laypersons alike for a century. Study 1 was conducted in remote monasteries of eastern Tibet with expert meditators performing g-tummo practices while their axillary temperature and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were measured.
G(s)alpha, the G protein that mediates receptor-stimulated cAMP generation, has been implicated as a regulator of adipogenesis and adipose tissue function. Heterozygous G(s)alpha mutations lead to obesity in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) patients and in mice. In this study, we generated mice with adipose-specific G(s)alpha deficiency. Heterozygotes had 50% loss of G(s)alpha expression in adipose tissue and no obvious phenotype, suggesting that adipose-specific G(s)alpha deficiency is not the cause of obesity in AHO.
SIRT3 is one of the seven mammalian sirtuin homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene, which mediates the effect of caloric restriction on life span extension in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. Because adipose tissue is essential in energy homeostasis and also plays a role in life span determination, we decided to investigate the function of sirtuin members in fat. We report here that murine SIRT3 is expressed in brown adipose tissue and is localized on the mitochondria inner membrane. Caloric restriction activates SIRT3 expression in both white and brown adipose.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sex-related differences in energy balance were studied in young Wistar rats fed standard chow pellets either ad libitum or in restricted amounts (60% of ad libitum intake) for 100 days. Caloric intake, indirect calorimetry, organ and adipose tissue weights, energy efficiency, liver mitochondrial respiration rate, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content were measured. Ad libitum-fed females showed greater oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and carbon dioxide production (Vco(2)) and lower energy efficiency than males.
An accelerated rate of fat recovery (catch-up fat) and insulin resistance are characteristic features of weight recovery after caloric restriction, with implications for the pathophysiology of catch-up growth and weight fluctuations. Using a previously described rat model of weight recovery in which catch-up fat and skeletal muscle insulin resistance have been linked to suppressed thermogenesis per se, we investigated alterations in mitochondrial energetics and oxidative stress in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) skeletal muscle mitochondria.
Reduction of core body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased life span and the antiaging effects conferred by calorie restriction (CR). Validation of this hypothesis has been difficult in homeotherms, primarily due to a lack of experimental models. We report that transgenic mice engineered to overexpress the uncoupling protein 2 in hypocretin neurons (Hcrt-UCP2) have elevated hypothalamic temperature. The effects of local temperature elevation on the central thermostat resulted in a 0.3 degrees to 0.5 degrees C reduction of the core body temperature.
There are many important considerations in the interactions among the herbal constituents in a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ephedra Herb [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph) is described a warm and acrid agent in TCM. The combination of Eph and Gypsum [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph-Gyp) shows specific actions in patients with different body temperatures. Previous reports suggested that Gypsum prevents the thermogenesis effect induced by ephedrine at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C.