Thermogenesis

Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

The brown fat specific UnCoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) is involved in thermogenesis, a process by which energy is dissipated as heat in response to cold stress and excess of caloric intake. Thermogenesis has potential implications for body mass control and cellular fat metabolism. In fact, in humans, the variability of the UCP1 gene is associated with obesity, fat gain and metabolism. Since regulation of metabolism is one of the key-pathways in lifespan extension, we tested the possible effects of UCP1 variability on survival.

Author(s): 
Rose, Giuseppina
Crocco, Paolina
D'Aquila, Patrizia
Montesanto, Alberto
Bellizzi, Dina
Passarino, Giuseppe
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Loss of nonshivering thermogenesis in mice by inactivation of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein gene (Ucp1-/- mice) causes increased sensitivity to cold and unexpected resistance to diet-induced obesity at a young age. To clarify the role of UCP1 in body weight regulation throughout life and influence of UCP1 deficiency on longevity, we longitudinally analyzed the phenotypes of Ucp1-/- mice maintained in a room at 23 degrees C.

Author(s): 
Kontani, Y.
Wang, Y.
Kimura, K.
Inokuma, K.-I.
Saito, M.
Suzuki-Miura, T.
Wang, Z.
Sato, Y.
Mori, N.
Yamashita, H.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Stories of g-tummo meditators mysteriously able to dry wet sheets wrapped around their naked bodies during a frigid Himalayan ceremony have intrigued scholars and laypersons alike for a century. Study 1 was conducted in remote monasteries of eastern Tibet with expert meditators performing g-tummo practices while their axillary temperature and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were measured.

Author(s): 
Kozhevnikov, Maria
Elliott, James
Shephard, Jennifer
Gramann, Klaus
Publication Title: 
Cell Metabolism

G(s)alpha, the G protein that mediates receptor-stimulated cAMP generation, has been implicated as a regulator of adipogenesis and adipose tissue function. Heterozygous G(s)alpha mutations lead to obesity in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) patients and in mice. In this study, we generated mice with adipose-specific G(s)alpha deficiency. Heterozygotes had 50% loss of G(s)alpha expression in adipose tissue and no obvious phenotype, suggesting that adipose-specific G(s)alpha deficiency is not the cause of obesity in AHO.

Author(s): 
Chen, Min
Chen, Hui
Nguyen, Annie
Gupta, Divakar
Wang, Jie
Lai, Edwin W.
Pacak, Karel
Gavrilova, Oksana
Quon, Michael J.
Weinstein, Lee S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

SIRT3 is one of the seven mammalian sirtuin homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene, which mediates the effect of caloric restriction on life span extension in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. Because adipose tissue is essential in energy homeostasis and also plays a role in life span determination, we decided to investigate the function of sirtuin members in fat. We report here that murine SIRT3 is expressed in brown adipose tissue and is localized on the mitochondria inner membrane. Caloric restriction activates SIRT3 expression in both white and brown adipose.

Author(s): 
Shi, Tong
Wang, Fei
Stieren, Emily
Tong, Qiang
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Sex-related differences in energy balance were studied in young Wistar rats fed standard chow pellets either ad libitum or in restricted amounts (60% of ad libitum intake) for 100 days. Caloric intake, indirect calorimetry, organ and adipose tissue weights, energy efficiency, liver mitochondrial respiration rate, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content were measured. Ad libitum-fed females showed greater oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and carbon dioxide production (Vco(2)) and lower energy efficiency than males.

Author(s): 
Valle, A.
Català-Niell, A.
Colom, B.
García-Palmer, F. J.
Oliver, J.
Roca, P.
Publication Title: 
Diabetes

An accelerated rate of fat recovery (catch-up fat) and insulin resistance are characteristic features of weight recovery after caloric restriction, with implications for the pathophysiology of catch-up growth and weight fluctuations. Using a previously described rat model of weight recovery in which catch-up fat and skeletal muscle insulin resistance have been linked to suppressed thermogenesis per se, we investigated alterations in mitochondrial energetics and oxidative stress in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) skeletal muscle mitochondria.

Author(s): 
Crescenzo, Raffaella
Lionetti, Lillà
Mollica, Maria Pina
Ferraro, Marialuisa
D'Andrea, Elvira
Mainieri, Davide
Dulloo, Abdul G.
Liverini, Giovanna
Iossa, Susanna
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

Reduction of core body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased life span and the antiaging effects conferred by calorie restriction (CR). Validation of this hypothesis has been difficult in homeotherms, primarily due to a lack of experimental models. We report that transgenic mice engineered to overexpress the uncoupling protein 2 in hypocretin neurons (Hcrt-UCP2) have elevated hypothalamic temperature. The effects of local temperature elevation on the central thermostat resulted in a 0.3 degrees to 0.5 degrees C reduction of the core body temperature.

Author(s): 
Conti, Bruno
Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel
Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle
Morale, Maria Concetta
Lucero, Jacinta
Brownell, Sara
Fabre, Veronique
Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador
Henriksen, Steven
Zorrilla, Eric P.
de Lecea, Luis
Bartfai, Tamas
Publication Title: 
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Energy conservation directed at accelerating body fat recovery (or catch-up fat) contributes to obesity relapse after slimming and to excess fat gain during catch-up growth after malnutrition.

Author(s): 
Summermatter, S.
Mainieri, D.
Russell, A. P.
Seydoux, J.
Montani, J. P.
Buchala, A.
Solinas, G.
Dulloo, A. G.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

There are many important considerations in the interactions among the herbal constituents in a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ephedra Herb [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph) is described a warm and acrid agent in TCM. The combination of Eph and Gypsum [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph-Gyp) shows specific actions in patients with different body temperatures. Previous reports suggested that Gypsum prevents the thermogenesis effect induced by ephedrine at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C.

Author(s): 
Yuan, Dan
Sunouchi, Hiroshi
Sakurai, Tetsurou
Saito, Ken-ichi
Kano, Yoshihiro

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