Thinking

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nursing Education

Manifestations of stress and anger are becoming more evident in society. Anger, an emotion associated with stress, often affects other aspects of everyday life, including the workplace and the educational setting. Stress and irrational anger in nursing students presents a potential teaching-learning problem that requires innovative evidence-based solutions. In this article, anger in nursing students is discussed, and background information on the topic is provided.

Author(s): 
Shirey, Maria R.
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia.

Author(s): 
Tai, Sara
Turkington, Douglas
Publication Title: 
Clinical Psychology Review

Perseverative cognitions such as rumination and worry are key components of mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety. Given the frequent comorbidity of conditions in which rumination and worry are present, it is possible that they are underpinned by the same cognitive process. Furthermore, rumination and worry appear to be part of a causal chain that can lead to long-term health consequences, including cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. It is important therefore to understand what interventions may be useful in reducing their incidence.

Author(s): 
Querstret, Dawn
Cropley, Mark
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: In a review and meta-analysis conducted in 1993, psychological preparation was found to be beneficial for a range of outcome variables including pain, behavioural recovery, length of stay and negative affect. Since this review, more detailed bibliographic searching has become possible, additional studies testing psychological preparation for surgery have been completed and hospital procedures have changed.

Author(s): 
Powell, Rachael
Scott, Neil W.
Manyande, Anne
Bruce, Julie
Vögele, Claus
Byrne-Davis, Lucie M. T.
Unsworth, Mary
Osmer, Christian
Johnston, Marie
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is a major modality in complementary and alternative medicine. Significant tensions exist between homeopathic practice and education, evident in the diversity of practice styles and pedagogic models. Utilizing clinical reasoning knowledge in conventional medicine and allied health sciences, this article seeks to identify and critique existing research in this important area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search utilizing MEDLINE,(®) Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), and CINAHL(®) (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) was conducted.

Author(s): 
Levy, David
Ajjawi, Rola
Roberts, Chris
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Physically active individuals have lower rates of morbidity and mortality, and recent evidence indicates that physical activity may be particularly beneficial to those experiencing chronic stress. The tendency to ruminate increases and prolongs physiological stress responses, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as indexed by cortisol reactivity to stressful experiences.

Author(s): 
Puterman, Eli
O'Donovan, Aoife
Adler, Nancy E.
Tomiyama, A. Janet
Kemeny, Margaret
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive perseverations that include worry and rumination over past or future events may prolong cortisol release, which in turn may contribute to predisease pathways and adversely affect physical health. Meditation training may increase self-reported mindfulness, which has been linked to reductions in cognitive perseverations. However, there are no reports that directly link self-reported mindfulness and resting cortisol output. Here, the authors investigate this link. METHODS: In an observational study, we measured self-reported mindfulness and p.m.

Author(s): 
Jacobs, Tonya L.
Shaver, Phillip R.
Epel, Elissa S.
Zanesco, Anthony P.
Aichele, Stephen R.
Bridwell, David A.
Rosenberg, Erika L.
King, Brandon G.
MacLean, Katherine A.
Sahdra, Baljinder K.
Kemeny, Margaret E.
Ferrer, Emilio
Wallace, B. Alan
Saron, Clifford D.
Publication Title: 
Postgraduate Medical Journal

In this paper I discuss a contemporary 'take' on the concept of adaptation in light of Crichton-Miller's original 1926 paper. I look briefly at some of the ways that contemporary thinking is both similar to and different from ideas of 90 years ago. In particular I think about how recent neurobiological findings, epigenetic research and attachment theory have cast new light on our understanding of the ways humans adapt to social and emotional environments. It looks at how psychiatric presentations which are seen as maladaptive might well have an adaptive origin in early life.

Author(s): 
Music, Graham
Publication Title: 
Brain and Cognition

The present study investigates cortical structures associated with personality dimension of positivity (POS) by using a standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), which provides EEG localization measures that are independent of the recording reference. Resting EEG and self-report measures of positivity, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and optimism were collected from 51 female undergraduates. EEG was recorded across 29 scalp sites. Anterior and posterior source alpha asymmetries of cortical activation were obtained by using sLORETA.

Author(s): 
Alessandri, Guido
Caprara, Gian Vittorio
De Pascalis, Vilfredo
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Aging & Human Development

To understand how caregivers reason when faced with patients in late states of dementia, two recognized expert caregivers were interviewed about their experiences of caring for severely demented patients. Combined in the precontext were hermeneutic, psychodynamic, and existentialist perspectives with regard to theories of human development and care ethics.

Author(s): 
Hellner, B. M.
Norberg, A.

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