Thinness

Publication Title: 
La Revue Du Praticien
Author(s): 
Vignalou, J.
Publication Title: 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Author(s): 
Nelson, Ralph A.
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

The Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is a central orexigenic peptide leading to increased food intake when ubiquitously overexpressed. AgRP-deficient (AgRP(-/-)) mice have either no phenotype or present an age-related leanness. In this study, AgRP(-/-) mice were fed alternate high fat or low fat diets in an effort to determine whether AgRP is a mediating factor for the effects of dietary fat on metabolic parameters. There were no striking metabolic differences between AgRP(-/-) and the equally obese wild type littermates but AgRP(-/-) mice displayed a significantly longer lifespan.

Author(s): 
Redmann, Stephen M.
Argyropoulos, George
Publication Title: 
Aging

Calorie restriction results in leanness, which is linked to metabolic conditions that favor longevity. We show here that deficiency of the triglyceride synthesis enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which promotes leanness, also extends longevity without limiting food intake. Female DGAT1-deficient mice were protected from age-related increases in body fat, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation in white adipose tissue. This protection was accompanied by increased mean and maximal life spans of ~25% and ~10%, respectively.

Author(s): 
Streeper, Ryan S.
Grueter, Carrie A.
Salomonis, Nathan
Cases, Sylvaine
Levin, Malin C.
Koliwad, Suneil K.
Zhou, Ping
Hirschey, Mattew D.
Verdin, Eric
Farese, Robert V.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age.

Author(s): 
Wojcicki, Janet M.
Holbrook, Katherine
Lustig, Robert H.
Epel, Elissa
Caughey, Aaron B.
MuÒoz, Ricardo F.
Shiboski, Stephen C.
Heyman, Melvin B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychiatric Research

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and its derived peptides, in particular alpha-MSH, have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of hunger, satiety and energy homeostasis. Studies in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suggest an abnormal expression of appetite-regulating hormones. Hormone expression levels may be modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which were recently shown to be implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders.

Author(s): 
Ehrlich, Stefan
Weiss, Deike
Burghardt, Roland
Infante-Duarte, Carmen
Brockhaus, Simone
Muschler, Marc A.
Bleich, Stefan
Lehmkuhl, Ulrike
Frieling, Helge
Publication Title: 
Journal of Women's Health (2002)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze insulin resistance (IR) and determine the need for a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the identification of IR and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in lean nondiabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive women with PCOS who enrolled in a university-based clinical trial. Nondiabetic women with PCOS based on the Eunice Kennedy Shriven National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) definition, aged 18-43 years and weighing ≤113 kg, were evaluated.

Author(s): 
Stovall, Dale William
Bailey, Amelia Purser
Pastore, Lisa M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

OBJECTIVES: Beneficial microbes and probiotics are promising agents for the prevention and treatment of enteric and diarrheal diseases in children; however, little is known about their in vivo mechanisms of action. We used a neonatal mouse model of rotavirus diarrhea to gain insight into how probiotics ameliorate acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: Rotavirus-infected mice were treated with 1 of 2 strains of human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri.

Author(s): 
Preidis, Geoffrey A.
Saulnier, Delphine M.
Blutt, Sarah E.
Mistretta, Toni-Ann
Riehle, Kevin P.
Major, Angela M.
Venable, Susan F.
Barrish, James P.
Finegold, Milton J.
Petrosino, Joseph F.
Guerrant, Richard L.
Conner, Margaret E.
Versalovic, James
Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The study of intrinsic fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging can provide insight into the effect of physiologic states on brain processes. In an effort to better understand the brain-gut communication induced by the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in healthy lean and obese individuals, we investigated whether ingestion of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetened beverages differentially engages the hypothalamus and brainstem vagal pathways in lean and obese women.

Author(s): 
Kilpatrick, Lisa A.
Coveleskie, Kristen
Connolly, Lynn
Labus, Jennifer S.
Ebrat, Bahar
Stains, Jean
Jiang, Zhiguo
Suyenobu, Brandall Y.
Raybould, Helen E.
Tillisch, Kirsten
Mayer, Emeran A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition

This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height.

Author(s): 
Alam, Nurul
Roy, Swapan Kumar
Ahmed, Tahmeed
Ahmed, A. M. Shamsir

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