The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. Issue 3 2007 contains 3197 complete reviews, 1744 protocols for reviews in production and 6312 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of 503,000 randomized controlled trials, and 9628 cited papers in the Cochrane methodology register. The health technology assessment database contains 6817 citations. This edition of the Library contains 103 new reviews of which 11 have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine.
Several experimental studies and some clinical experience have shown that metabolic syndrome and caloric restriction exert opposite effects on thrombosis, because these two nourishing conditions are at extreme ends of the same spectrum. The antithrombotic action induced by caloric restriction happens through Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a gene/protein activated by the reduction of calorie intake lower than is typical. The antithrombotic effect is due to the activation of SIRT1 acting through an increase of insulin sensitivity, which reduces endothelial dysfunction.
Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society
The process of aging is accompanied by several modifications in the hemostatic system at different levels (blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet activity, vascular endothelium). These changes may explain the higher incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis in the elderly compared to young people. Genetic and environmental factors modulate in different combinations the expression of proteins involved in the hemostatic process. Among the latter, diet and smoking habits play an important role, as well as physical exercise and, for women, hormonal status.
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. In addition to being a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, much recent data suggest that C-reactive protein (CRP) promotes atherogenesis via effects on monocytes and endothelial cells. The metabolic syndrome is associated with significantly elevated levels of CRP. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a marker of atherothrombosis, is also elevated in the metabolic syndrome and in diabetes, and endothelial cells are the major source of PAI-1.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: C-reactive protein (CRP) can promote atherothrombosis by decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase and prostacyclin, and by stimulating both plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in endothelial cells and tissue factor in mononuclear cells. Plasminogen activator-1, a marker of fibrinolysis, is the primary inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Thus, we tested the effect of CRP on tPA in human aortic endothelial cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Incubation of human aortic endothelial cells with CRP (> or =12.5 microg/mL) significantly decreased tPA antigen and activity.
C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypic marker of inflammation, is a cardiovascular risk marker and recent in vitro studies suggest that it may promote atherogenesis. CRP promotes oxidative stress in vitro and induces tissue factor (TF) release. However, there is a paucity of data examining the effects of CRP on oxidative stress and tissue factor procoagulant activity (PCA) in vivo. Thus, we tested the effects of CRP administration on superoxide anion release and tissue factor activity and examined mechanistic pathways using a rat sterile air pouch model.
In osteoarthritis deformans and rheumatoid arthritis of the knee and in disorders in motility of the knee joint after cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis, acupuncture was applied to the normal side at the symmetrical part to the lesion and flection-extension exercise and massage on the affected joint were carried out as rehabilitation (Reha) during the time the needles were used. A most remarkable cure rate was obtained in osteoarthritis deformans of the knee when treated with acupuncture on the normal side and flection-extension exercise and massage on the affected part.
The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Treatment for individuals suffering from migraines and pain due to an inflammation or impingement of a nerve range from noninvasive methods such as massage, physical therapy, and medications to invasive methods such as epidural steroid injections and surgery. Each method of treatment has an associated level of risk. While minor to moderate complications from such procedures do occur, deaths are very rare. We report the first cited case of a death associated with the pain management procedure called nerve root block, also referred to as a transforaminal epidural steroid injection.
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hyperlipidemia can promote arterial thrombus. We evaluated the potential of a partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) as dietary fiber on lipid profiles and FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis in the high fat-diet fed hamsters. Our in vitro results found that PHGG is efficient to scavenge O2-*, H2O2, and HOCl. High fat-diet increased plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, methylguanidine and dityrosine level and accelerated FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis formation (from 463 +/- 51 to 303 +/- 45 sec).
Schweizer Archiv Für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie Und Psychiatrie = Archives Suisses De Neurologie, Neurochirurgie Et De Psychiatrie
Five cases of occlusion of the vertebral artery in context with mechanical stress - from endogene reasons in one case - and lesions of the vessel walls (in three cases) are recorded. The inferior posterior cerebellar artery was involved in all cases. Variable ischemic lesions resulted in the medulla oblongata and in the cerebellum, which were survived up to four weeks in one case. In the others death occurred within few hours or suddenly and unexpectedly. Related neurological symptoms were absent in one case only.