BACKGROUND: In humans the ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia is biphasic: an initial increase in minute ventilation (VE) from baseline, the acute hypoxic response, is followed after 3-5 min by a slow ventilatory decay, the hypoxic ventilatory decline, and a new steady state, 25-40% greater than baseline VE, is reached in about 15-20 min. The transition from 20 min of isocapnic hypoxia into normoxia results in a rapid decrease in VE, the off-response. In humans, halothane, at subanesthetic concentrations, is known to decrease the acute hypoxic response.
The purpose of this study was to compare the Oxylator EM-100, a ventilator with a fixed flow and working pressure of 25 to 50 cm H(2)O, with a bag-valve device with respect to safety, efficiency, and efficacy when used by professionals. We conducted a prospective, controlled, caregiver-blind single center study. Induction was followed by ventilation with a bag-valve device oxylator in manual and automatic modes. Steps were repeated under hypnosis, after muscle relaxation with mask, and with an endotracheal tube. Forty patients, aged 48.8 +/- 13.5 years weighing 50 to 111 kg were studied.
Breathing is the most vital function for maintenance of life. Slow and deep breathing is an integral part of Pranayama and it reduces dead space ventilation and renews air throughout the lungs. The reported beneficial effects of deep breathing as a part of either long term or short term practice of Pranayama are well documented. However our knowledge about the effects of a few minutes' of deep breathing on human ventilatory parameters is poor.
Attention to internal bodily sensations is a core feature of mindfulness meditation. Previous studies have not detected differences in interoceptive accuracy between meditators and nonmeditators on heartbeat detection and perception tasks. We compared differences in respiratory interoceptive accuracy between meditators and nonmeditators in the ability to detect and discriminate respiratory resistive loads and sustain accurate perception of respiratory tidal volume during nondistracted and distracted conditions.
Qigong, a special form of breathing exercise, was investigated to examine its effect on cardiorespiratory changes. Ten volunteers (five males and five females) participated in a 20-minute group instructional session for 10 consecutive days before testing of its treatment effects. The testing protocol followed a C1-T-C2 design, where C1, T, and C2 represented the first, treatment, and second control period, respectively. Each period consisted of a 5-minute interval, and thus each testing session consisted of 15 minutes.