Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect and thus classifies them as temporary fillers.
The Institute of Holistic Medical Sciences (IHMS), Kottayam, Kerala, India, the Institute of Macromolecular Science and Engineering (IMSE), Kottayam, Kerala, India and Mathew Ayurveda und Venen Klinik (MUVK), Klagenfurt, Austria, have jointly conducted a 3-day world conference on nanomedicine and drug delivery (WCN 2010) in Kottayam, Kerala, India from 16-18 April 2010. Nanomedicine is defined as the application of nanotechnology to achieve breakthroughs in healthcare. It exploits the improved and often novel physical, chemical and biological properties of materials at the nanometer scale.
Bone cells and their precursors are sensitive to changes in their biomechanical environment. The importance of mechanical stimuli has been observed in bone homeostasis and osteogenesis, but the mechanisms responsible for osteogenic induction in response to mechanical signals are poorly understood. We hypothesized that compressive forces could exert an osteogenic effect on osteoblasts and act in a dose-dependent manner. To test our hypothesis, electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were used as a 3-D microenvironment for osteoblast culture.
Mechanical training of engineered tissue constructs is believed necessary to improve regeneration of cartilaginous grafts. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms underlying mechanical activation are not clear. This is partly due to unavailability of appropriate scaffolds allowing exposure of cells to dynamic compressive strains (DCS) in vitro while permitting subsequent molecular analyses.
As the potential range of stem cell applications in tissue engineering continues to grow, the appropriate scaffolding choice is necessary to create tightly defined artificial microenvironments for each target organ. These microenvironments determine stem cell fate via control over differentiation. In this study we examined the specific effects of scaffold stiffness on embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cell behavior. Mechanically distinct scaffolds having identical microstructures and surface chemistries were produced utilizing core-shell electrospinning.