Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors control diverse cellular functions, such as cell death, metabolism, and longevity. We analyzed FOXO3/FKHRL1 expression and subcellular localization in tumor sections of neuroblastoma patients and observed a correlation between nuclear FOXO3 and high caspase-8 expression. In neuroblastoma caspase-8 is frequently silenced by DNA methylation. Conditional FOXO3 activated caspase-8 gene expression but did not change the DNA-methylation pattern of regulatory sequences in the caspase-8 gene.
BACKGROUND: Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, has recently shown antitumor activity in various cancer cells. Apo2 ligand or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) is regarded as a promising anticancer agent, but chemoresistance affects its efficacy as a treatment strategy. Apoptosis induced by the combination of DHA and Apo2L/TRAIL has not been well documented, and the mechanisms involved remain unclear.
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, which has been shown to preferentially induce apoptosis in cancer cells without adverse effects on normal cells. However, there are still some cancer cells, especially those with high malignancy, resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, impeding the clinical anticancer efficiency of TRAIL.
Acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), a triterpenoid isolated from Boswellia carterri Birdw and Boswellia serrata, has been found to inhibit tumor cell growth and to induce apoptosis. The apoptotic effects and the mechanisms of action of AKBA were studied in LNCaP and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. AKBA induced apoptosis in both cell lines at concentrations above 10 microg/mL. AKBA-induced apoptosis was correlated with the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 as well as with poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage.
S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and its metabolite 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) inhibit mitogen-induced proliferative response in liver and colon cancer cells. SAMe and MTA are also proapoptotic in liver cancer cells by selectively inducing Bcl-x(S) expression. The aims of this work were to assess whether these agents are proapoptotic in colon cancer cells, and if so, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms. We found that both SAMe and MTA are proapoptotic in HT-29 and RKO cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) catabolizes S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the main methyl donor of the body. Patients with cirrhosis show attenuated GNMT expression, which is absent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples. GNMT(-/-) mice develop spontaneous steatosis that progresses to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and HCC. The liver is highly enriched with innate immune cells and plays a key role in the body's host defense and in the regulation of inflammation. Chronic inflammation is the major hallmark of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression.
Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection.